The second annual review occurred February, A number of additional diseases were discussed and considered for inclusion in the priority list, including: These diseases pose major public health risks and further research and development is needed, including surveillance and diagnostics. They should be watched carefully and considered again at the next annual review.
Efforts in the interim to understand and mitigate them are encouraged. Although not included on the list of diseases to be considered at the meeting, monkeypox and leptospirosis were discussed and experts stressed the risks they pose to public health.
There was agreement on the need for: Several diseases were determined to be outside of the current scope of the Blueprint: In particular, experts recognized the need for improved diagnostics and vaccines for pneumonic plague and additional support for more effective therapeutics against leishmaniasis. The experts also noted that: For many of the diseases discussed, as well as many other diseases with the potential to cause a public health emergency, there is a need for better diagnostics.
Existing drugs and vaccines need further improvement for several of the diseases considered but not included in the priority list. Any type of pathogen could be prioritised under the Blueprint, not only viruses. There is a need to assess the value, where possible, of developing countermeasures for multiple diseases or for families of pathogens.
The impact of environmental issues on diseases with the potential to cause public health emergencies was discussed. This may need to be considered as part of future reviews. The importance of the diseases discussed was considered for special populations, such as refugees, internally displaced populations, and victims of disasters.
The value of a One Health approach was stressed, including a parallel prioritization processes for animal health. Such an effort would support research and development to prevent and control animal diseases minimising spill-over and enhancing food security. The possible utility of animal vaccines for preventing public health emergencies was also noted. Also there are concerted efforts to address anti-microbial resistance through specific international initiatives.
The possibility was not excluded that, in the future, a resistant pathogen might emerge and appropriately be prioritized.