Bareback sex between man and woman. Men are more likely to have unprotected sex with women they find attractive.



Bareback sex between man and woman

Bareback sex between man and woman

We found no significant relationship between serodiscordant sex and depressive symptoms based on either the full BDI or the somatic subscale for the overall sample. There was no significant effect based on the somatic subscale. Among HIV-positive participants, there were no statistically significant differences in depressive symptoms based on whether they engaged in discordant UAI. Discussion This study is the first to our knowledge that examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual behavior using a sample of MSM who deliberately engage in bareback sex.

While previous research has focused on MSM who may depart from their sexual safety intentions in response to depressive symptoms, this study contributes to the literature on the depression-risk taking relationship by directing attention to men who have no such intentions.

There are limitations to this investigation that deserve mention. Given that our findings were based on a cross-sectional design, we are unable to test or make any statements about a causal relationship between depressive symptoms and risk taking.

The measure used to assess depressive symptoms asked participants to rate items based on the previous two weeks whereas the measure of sexual risk behavior covered the previous two months.

In addition, the small sample size of the study may have hindered our ability to detect a significant effect of depressive symptoms on the sexual behavior of HIV-positive participants. Future studies should be conducted with larger samples. These limitations notwithstanding, this study is novel and makes an important contribution to understanding of how depressed mood may affect sexual behavior among MSM, particularly among MSM who engage in bareback sex.

The current study addressed the question of whether depressive symptoms among barebackers had any effect on sexual behavior, particularly sexual behavior that has been associated with HIV transmission risk. Our findings showed that for HIV-negative men who bareback, there was a direct relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual risk taking, with greater depressive symptoms corresponding to an increased frequency of engaging in unsafe behaviors.

In contrast, among HIV-positive men, there was no significant relationship between depressive symptoms and unprotected sex. More research is needed to help us better understand the nature of depression among HIV-negative men in contrast to depression among HIV-positive men, and how this information may be used in the development of interventions designed to reduce their infection risk. Findings presented here might have additional relevance given previous research which shows inconsistency in the link between depressive symptoms and risk taking.

The current study suggests that some of this inconsistency may be attributed to differences in study populations. Men who deliberately seek unprotected sexual encounters in risky contexts may represent a distinct group of MSM whose sexual behaviors may be affected albeit not fully explained by mood disturbance when serostatus is taken into account.

Such a pattern has been found in other research showing a relationship between HIV serostatus and differential patterns of coping with psychological distress and maladaptive or potentially harmful behavior, such as heightened drug use [ 14 ].

This finding is critical in that it shows the importance of directing attention to an individual's HIV serostatus when trying to assess the likelihood of sexual risk behaviors. It is possible that such divergent patterns based on HIV serostatus existed in other studies but were not examined, thereby adding to the inconsistency between depressive symptoms and risk taking found in the literature.

Given that this sample of MSM represents men who intentionally engage in condomless sex, it may be helpful to distinguish their behavior from that of other MSM. Much of the literature that has focused MSM who engage in unprotected sex has identified depression as a factor in the slips or departures from intentions to follow sexual safety guidelines. The current study consisted only of men who reported that they deliberately sought out unprotected sex and, futhermore, did it in circumstances that involved HIV risk.

It is possible that the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual behavior among men in this sample differed due to variations in the health consequences of unprotected sex they faced based on serostatus and the meaning they attached to these consequences. Due to these differences in potential consequences and meanings, risk taking could also be viewed as reflecting an attenuation in their ability to avoid harmful behavior. Evidence suggests that individuals with depressive symptoms are more likely to engage in behaviors which have an adverse or harmful effect on their health, including poor nutrition, inadequate physical activity, substance use, cigarette smoking, irregular sleep, and failure to take medications as prescribed.

Our findings suggest that increases in existing sexual risk behavior i. These men may more frequently engage in risk taking for reasons similar to those found in other studies examining the relationship between depression and unprotected sex among HIV-negative men. Risk taking among HIV-negative men may be related to a marked need for intimacy and the comfort derived from this personal connection. Additional research is needed to better understand how depressive symptoms affect sexual activity among men who intentionally engage in potentially harmful sexual behaviors.

Depression is associated with sexual risk among men who have sex with men, but is mediated by cognitive escape and self-efficacy. Depression symptoms and sexual HIV risk behavior among serodiscordant couples.

Risk factors for HIV infection among men who have sex with men. Correlates of sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Depression and HIV risk behavior among Seattle-area injection drug users and young men who have sex with men.

Depressive disorders and unprotected casual anal sex among Australian homosexually active men in primary care. Am J Public Health. Definitions, identity, and research. Reasons for and against it. The Treatment Advocacy Program: A randomized controlled trial of a peer-led safer sex intervention for HIV-infected men who have sex with men. J Consult Clin Psychol. Reductions in HIV risk behaviors among depressed drug injectors. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. Substance use and sexual risk behavior: Understanding their association among four ethnic groups of Latino men who have sex with men.

Correlates of HIV transmission risk factors and considerations for interventions in homeless, chemically addicted and mentally ill patients. Sexual dysfunction before antidepressant therapy in major depression.

Afr J Psychiatry Johannesbg ;13 1: Newcomb ME, Mustanski B. Internalized homophobia and internalizing mental health problems: Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence.

The relation between mood and sexuality in heterosexual men. The relation between mood and sexuality in gay men. Bancroft J, Janssen E. The dual control model of male sexual response: Cybercartography of popular Internet sites used by New York City men who have sex with men interested in bareback sex. Couper M, Rowe B. Evaluation of a computer-assisted self-interview component in a computer-assisted interview survey. Reliability of sexual behavior self-reports in male couples of discordant HIV-status.

Self-efficacy to refrain from smoking predicted by major depression and nicotine dependence. Relationship of depression and diabetes self-care, medication adherence, and preventive care.

Odegard PS, Capoccia K. Medication taking and diabetes: Depressive symptoms, social support, and personal health behaviors in young men and women.

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Bareback sex between man and woman

We found no significant relationship between serodiscordant sex and depressive symptoms based on either the full BDI or the somatic subscale for the overall sample. There was no significant effect based on the somatic subscale. Among HIV-positive participants, there were no statistically significant differences in depressive symptoms based on whether they engaged in discordant UAI. Discussion This study is the first to our knowledge that examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual behavior using a sample of MSM who deliberately engage in bareback sex.

While previous research has focused on MSM who may depart from their sexual safety intentions in response to depressive symptoms, this study contributes to the literature on the depression-risk taking relationship by directing attention to men who have no such intentions.

There are limitations to this investigation that deserve mention. Given that our findings were based on a cross-sectional design, we are unable to test or make any statements about a causal relationship between depressive symptoms and risk taking. The measure used to assess depressive symptoms asked participants to rate items based on the previous two weeks whereas the measure of sexual risk behavior covered the previous two months. In addition, the small sample size of the study may have hindered our ability to detect a significant effect of depressive symptoms on the sexual behavior of HIV-positive participants.

Future studies should be conducted with larger samples. These limitations notwithstanding, this study is novel and makes an important contribution to understanding of how depressed mood may affect sexual behavior among MSM, particularly among MSM who engage in bareback sex.

The current study addressed the question of whether depressive symptoms among barebackers had any effect on sexual behavior, particularly sexual behavior that has been associated with HIV transmission risk.

Our findings showed that for HIV-negative men who bareback, there was a direct relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual risk taking, with greater depressive symptoms corresponding to an increased frequency of engaging in unsafe behaviors.

In contrast, among HIV-positive men, there was no significant relationship between depressive symptoms and unprotected sex. More research is needed to help us better understand the nature of depression among HIV-negative men in contrast to depression among HIV-positive men, and how this information may be used in the development of interventions designed to reduce their infection risk. Findings presented here might have additional relevance given previous research which shows inconsistency in the link between depressive symptoms and risk taking.

The current study suggests that some of this inconsistency may be attributed to differences in study populations. Men who deliberately seek unprotected sexual encounters in risky contexts may represent a distinct group of MSM whose sexual behaviors may be affected albeit not fully explained by mood disturbance when serostatus is taken into account.

Such a pattern has been found in other research showing a relationship between HIV serostatus and differential patterns of coping with psychological distress and maladaptive or potentially harmful behavior, such as heightened drug use [ 14 ]. This finding is critical in that it shows the importance of directing attention to an individual's HIV serostatus when trying to assess the likelihood of sexual risk behaviors.

It is possible that such divergent patterns based on HIV serostatus existed in other studies but were not examined, thereby adding to the inconsistency between depressive symptoms and risk taking found in the literature.

Given that this sample of MSM represents men who intentionally engage in condomless sex, it may be helpful to distinguish their behavior from that of other MSM.

Much of the literature that has focused MSM who engage in unprotected sex has identified depression as a factor in the slips or departures from intentions to follow sexual safety guidelines. The current study consisted only of men who reported that they deliberately sought out unprotected sex and, futhermore, did it in circumstances that involved HIV risk.

It is possible that the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual behavior among men in this sample differed due to variations in the health consequences of unprotected sex they faced based on serostatus and the meaning they attached to these consequences. Due to these differences in potential consequences and meanings, risk taking could also be viewed as reflecting an attenuation in their ability to avoid harmful behavior.

Evidence suggests that individuals with depressive symptoms are more likely to engage in behaviors which have an adverse or harmful effect on their health, including poor nutrition, inadequate physical activity, substance use, cigarette smoking, irregular sleep, and failure to take medications as prescribed.

Our findings suggest that increases in existing sexual risk behavior i. These men may more frequently engage in risk taking for reasons similar to those found in other studies examining the relationship between depression and unprotected sex among HIV-negative men. Risk taking among HIV-negative men may be related to a marked need for intimacy and the comfort derived from this personal connection.

Additional research is needed to better understand how depressive symptoms affect sexual activity among men who intentionally engage in potentially harmful sexual behaviors. Depression is associated with sexual risk among men who have sex with men, but is mediated by cognitive escape and self-efficacy.

Depression symptoms and sexual HIV risk behavior among serodiscordant couples. Risk factors for HIV infection among men who have sex with men. Correlates of sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

Depression and HIV risk behavior among Seattle-area injection drug users and young men who have sex with men. Depressive disorders and unprotected casual anal sex among Australian homosexually active men in primary care. Am J Public Health. Definitions, identity, and research. Reasons for and against it. The Treatment Advocacy Program: A randomized controlled trial of a peer-led safer sex intervention for HIV-infected men who have sex with men.

J Consult Clin Psychol. Reductions in HIV risk behaviors among depressed drug injectors. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. Substance use and sexual risk behavior: Understanding their association among four ethnic groups of Latino men who have sex with men. Correlates of HIV transmission risk factors and considerations for interventions in homeless, chemically addicted and mentally ill patients. Sexual dysfunction before antidepressant therapy in major depression. Afr J Psychiatry Johannesbg ;13 1: Newcomb ME, Mustanski B.

Internalized homophobia and internalizing mental health problems: Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence.

The relation between mood and sexuality in heterosexual men. The relation between mood and sexuality in gay men. Bancroft J, Janssen E. The dual control model of male sexual response: Cybercartography of popular Internet sites used by New York City men who have sex with men interested in bareback sex.

Couper M, Rowe B. Evaluation of a computer-assisted self-interview component in a computer-assisted interview survey. Reliability of sexual behavior self-reports in male couples of discordant HIV-status. Self-efficacy to refrain from smoking predicted by major depression and nicotine dependence. Relationship of depression and diabetes self-care, medication adherence, and preventive care.

Odegard PS, Capoccia K. Medication taking and diabetes: Depressive symptoms, social support, and personal health behaviors in young men and women.

Bareback sex between man and woman

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4 Comments

  1. Due to these differences in potential consequences and meanings, risk taking could also be viewed as reflecting an attenuation in their ability to avoid harmful behavior. It is possible that the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual behavior among men in this sample differed due to variations in the health consequences of unprotected sex they faced based on serostatus and the meaning they attached to these consequences. More research is needed to help us better understand the nature of depression among HIV-negative men in contrast to depression among HIV-positive men, and how this information may be used in the development of interventions designed to reduce their infection risk.

  2. Substance use and sexual risk behavior: Understanding their association among four ethnic groups of Latino men who have sex with men. Discussion This study is the first to our knowledge that examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual behavior using a sample of MSM who deliberately engage in bareback sex.

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