Cohen provided a quantifiable assessment for art therapists to use around the world. The test protocol attempts to control for the influence of medications and pharmaceutical confounding factors. The DDS is considered to be a reliable and valid assessment tool, and evidence continues to accrue to support this. The person is then asked to draw the mandala from the card they choose with an oil pastel of the color of their choice.
The artist is then asked to explain if there were any meanings, experiences, or related information related to the mandala they drew. This test is based on the beliefs of Joan Kellogg, who sees a recurring correlation between the images, pattern and shapes in the mandalas that people draw and the personalities of the artists. This test assesses and gives clues to a person's psychological progressions and their current psychological condition Malchiodi The mandala originates in Buddhism ; its connections with spirituality help us to see links with transpersonal art.
The test can also be used to assess brain damage and general mental functioning. By virtue of being a projective test, the results of the HTP are subjective and open to interpretation by the administrator of the exam. Buck included both qualitative and quantitative measurements of intellectual ability in the HTP V.
A page manual was written by Buck to instruct the test-giver on proper grading of the HTP, which is more subjective than quantitative. HTP is given to persons above the age of three and takes approximately minutes to complete based on the person's level of mental functioning. During the first phase, the test-taker is asked to draw the house, tree, and person and the test-giver asks questions each picture.
There are 60 questions originally designed by Buck but art therapists and trained test administrators can also design their own questions, or ask follow up questions. This phase is done with a crayon.
Again the test-giver asks similar questions about the drawings. Variations of the test may ask the person to draw one person of each sex, or put all drawings on the same page. Is the occupant happy? What goes on inside the house? What's it like at night? Do people visit the house? What else do the people in the house want to add to the drawing? What kind of tree is this? How old is the tree?
What season is it? Has anyone tried to cut it down? What else grows nearby? Who waters this tree? Trees need sunshine to live so does it get enough sunshine? How old is the person? What do they like and dislike doing? Has anyone tried to hurt them? Who looks out for them? The quantitative measure of intelligence for the House-tree-person has been shown to highly correlate with the WAIS and other well-established intelligence tests. The subjective nature of this aspect of the HTP, as with other qualitative tests, has little empirical evidence to support its reliability or validity.
This test, however, is still considered an accurate measure of brain damage and used in the assessment of schizophrenic patients also suffering from brain damage. This is a projective assessment used to create a graphic representation of the person's "road of life. The road's reparative features or its need for "periodic upgrade" can serve as a metaphor for client's capacity for change and restoration Hanes, , , , .
History[ edit ] Although art therapy is a relatively young therapeutic discipline, its roots lie in the use of the arts in the ' moral treatment ' of psychiatric patients in the late 18th century, this moral treatment, Susan Hogan argues, "arose out of utilitarian philosophy and also from a non-conformist religious tradition",  and in a re-evaluation of the art of non-western art and of the art of untrained artists and of the insane[ clarification needed ].
The early art therapists who published accounts of their work acknowledged the influence of aesthetics, psychiatry, psychoanalysis, rehabilitation, early childhood education, and art education, to varying degrees, on their practices. The British artist Adrian Hill coined the term art therapy in He wrote that the value of art therapy lay in "completely engrossing the mind as well as the fingers …releasing the creative energy of the frequently inhibited patient", which enabled the patient to "build up a strong defence against his misfortunes".
He suggested artistic work to his fellow patients. That began his art therapy work, which was documented in in his book, Art Versus Illness. Other early proponents of art therapy in Britain include E.
The British Association of Art Therapists was founded in Naumburg, an educator, asserted that "art therapy is psychoanalytically oriented" and that free art expression "becomes a form of symbolic speech which…leads to an increase in verbalization in the course of therapy.
The American Art Therapy Association was founded in International networking contributes to the establishment of standards for education and practice. The term 'art brut' was first coined by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe art created outside the boundaries of official culture. Dubuffet used the term 'art brut' to focus on artistic practice by insane-asylum patients. The English translation "outsider art" was first used by art critic Roger Cardinal in Art therapy professionals have been accused of not putting enough emphasis on the artistic value and meaning of the artist's works, considering them only from a medical perspective.
This led to the misconception of the whole outsider art practice, while addressing therapeutical issues within the field of aesthetical discussion. Outsider Art, on the contrary, has been negatively judged because of the labeling of the artists' work, i.
Moreover, the business-related issues on the term outsider art carry some misunderstandings. Becoming a registered art therapist ATR with the ATCB requires that one complete a graduate-level program in art therapy from an accredited university, as well as practicum and internships, and additional clinical experience post-graduation with supervision from a professional clinician Source: Licensure[ edit ] In some states, art therapists can be licensed as an art therapist, creative art therapist LCAT; NY State only , or professional or mental health counselor many states.
For more information on how to become licensed, US art therapist should contact the state licensure board in the state in the US in which they wish to practice. Licensure is generally needed to obtain reimbursement for services as an independent practitioner and in some states, is required by law in order to practice independently.
Depending on where an art therapist practices geographically, certification is not always necessary in becoming a professional art therapist. According to The American Art Therapy Association AATA , master's program students must have taken courses in a variety of studio art disciplines as a means of signifying artistic proficiency as a prerequisite to the master's degree.
Additionally, students are required to take at least 48 credit hours at the graduate level in particular art therapy, counseling, and psychology related topics, as well as successfully partaking in practica and internships. Because art therapy is still considered a developing field, most countries do not regulate its practice and application.
Post-master's[ edit ] In order to apply for the ATR registered art therapist certification with the Art Therapy Credentials Board ATCB , candidates are required to complete a minimum of 1, hours of direct client contact post-graduation from a master's program that is AATA-approved or a minimum of 1, hours from a master's program that is not AATA-approved Source: Practitioners are encouraged to contact their state's licensing board or the office of their state attorney general to investigate licensure, which is different from certification.
General ethical principles[ edit ] One topic covered in this section describes the responsibility art therapist have to their patients ATCB According to the ATCB, art therapists must strive to advance the wellness of their clients, respect the rights of the client, and make sure they are providing a useful service They cannot discriminate against patient whatsoever, and may never desert or neglect patients receiving therapy.
Art therapists should continue therapy with a patient only if the client is benefiting from the therapy. It's against the principles established by the ATCB for art therapist to have patients only for financial reasons. The ATCB states art therapists must be professionally proficient and must have integrity Art therapists must keep updated on new developments in art therapy. They are only supposed to treat cases in which they are qualified as established by their training, education, and experience ATCB They are not allowed to treat patients currently seeing another therapist without the other therapist's permission ATCB Art therapists must also observe patient confidentiality ATCB Other topics covered in this section further discuss responsibilities of art therapists.
These responsibilities include, "responsibility to students and supervisees, responsibility to research participants, responsibility to the profession" ATCB This section also establishes the rules by which art therapists must follow when making financial arrangements and when they choose to advertise their service ATCB Eligibility for credentials[ edit ] This section of the ATCB Code of Professional Practice outlines the process by which art therapy students receive their credentials.
It discusses the standards for eligibility and describes the application process. It also discusses the procedure to follow when accused of criminal or ethical wrongdoing.
Standards of conduct[ edit ] This section of the ATCB Code of Professional Practice addresses in detail confidentiality, use of clients' artwork, professional relationships, and grounds for discipline. Art therapist are only allowed to release confidential information if they have explicit written consent by the patient or if the therapist has reason to believe the patient needs immediate help to address a severe danger to the patient's life. Within a professional relationship, art therapists are banned from engaging in exploitative relationships with current and former patients, students, interns, trainees, supervisors, or co-workers.
Main topics covered in this section cover: