The reasons for the interest in female ejaculation has been questioned by feminist writers. De Graaf In the 17th century, the Dutch anatomist Reinier de Graaf wrote an influential treatise on the reproductive organs Concerning the Generative Organs of Women which is much cited in the literature on this topic. De Graaf discussed the original controversy but supported the Aristotelian view.
In the lower part, near the outlet of the urinary passage, this membrane is pierced by large ducts, or lacunae, through which pituito-serous matter occasionally discharges in considerable quantities. Between this very thin membrane and the fleshy fibres we have just described there is, along the whole duct of the urethra, a whitish membranous substance about one finger-breadth thick which completely surrounds the urethral canal The substance could be called quite aptly the female 'prostatae' or 'corpus glandulosum', 'glandulous body' The function of the 'prostatae' is to generate a pituito-serous juice which makes women more libidinous with its pungency and saltiness and lubricates their sexual parts in agreeable fashion during coitus.
An abnormal secretion of the mucous membrane of the vagina is looked upon as source of disgust. However, women's writing of that time portrayed this in more positive terms. Thus we find Almeda Sperry writing to Emma Goldman in , about the "rhythmic spurt of your love juices". Its Physiology and Technique Certainly van de Velde was well aware of the varied experiences of women. Finally it is just as certain that such an 'ejaculation' does not take place in many women of sexually normal functions, as that it does take place in others.
Yet the subject was largely ignored for most of the early part of the century. In , Huffman, an American gynaecologist, published his studies of the prostatic tissue in women together with a historical account and detailed drawings.
These clearly showed the difference between the original glands identified by Skene at the urinary meatus, and the more proximal collections of glandular tissue emptying directly into the urethra. To date, most of the interest had focused on the substance and structure rather than function of the glands.
In the course of sexual stimulation , the female urethra begins to enlarge and can be felt easily. It swells out greatly at the end of orgasm Occasionally the production of fluids is If there is the opportunity to observe the orgasm of such women, one can see that large quantities of a clear transparent fluid are expelled not from the vulva, but out of the urethra in gushes. At first I thought that the bladder sphincter had become defective by the intensity of the orgasm.
Involuntary expulsion of urine is reported in sex literature. In the cases observed by us, the fluid was examined and it had no urinary character. I am inclined to believe that "urine" reported to be expelled during female orgasm is not urine, but only secretions of the intraurethral glands correlated with the erotogenic zone along the urethra in the anterior vaginal wall.
Moreover the profuse secretions coming out with the orgasm have no lubricating significance, otherwise they would be produced at the beginning of intercourse and not at the peak of orgasm. However this paper made little impact, and was dismissed in the major sexological writings of that time, such as Kinsey  and Masters and Johnson ,  equating this "erroneous belief" with urinary stress incontinence. Although clearly Kinsey was familiar with the phenomenon, commenting that p.
Most women do not ejaculate during orgasm Late 20th century awareness The topic did not receive serious attention again until a review by Josephine Lowndes Sevely and JW Bennett appeared in Whipple became aware of the phenomenon when studying urinary incontinence, with which it is often confused.
Nevertheless, the theory advanced by these authors was immediately dismissed by many other authors, such as physiologist Joseph Bohlen,  for not being based on rigorous scientific procedures, and psychiatrist Helen Singer Kaplan stated: Some radical feminist writers, such as Sheila Jeffreys were also dismissive, claiming it as a figment of male fantasy: Krafft-Ebing invented a form of ejaculation for women. It required the detailed anatomical work of Helen O'Connell  from onwards to more properly elucidate the relationships between the different anatomical structures involved.
As she observes, the female perineal urethra is embedded in the anterior vaginal wall and is surrounded by erectile tissue in all directions except posteriorly where it relates to the vaginal wall. These parts have a shared vasculature and nerve supply and during sexual stimulation respond as a unit". Man in Paradise" Malinowski states that in the language of the Trobriand Island people, a single word is used to describe ejaculation in both male and female.
Amongst the Batoro, older women teach the younger women "kachapati" spraying the wall at puberty. See also Chalker pp. The largest study being an internet survey consisting of participants. Research has used highly selected individuals, case studies, or very small numbers of subjects, making generalization difficult.
For instance, much of the research into the nature of the fluid focuses on determining whether it is or contains urine. There are also problems involved in the collection of specimens and issues of contamination.
Since the area of interest is para-urethral glands, it is impossible to completely separate the secretions from urine, especially considering that there may be retrograde ejaculation into the urethra towards the bladder. The best current data comes from studies where women have abstained from coitus, and where their own urine is used as a control both pre- and post-orgasm.
Research has attempted to use chemicals that are excreted in the urine so that any urinary contamination can be detected. Further methodological issues include the fact that the composition of the fluid appears to vary with the menstrual cycle,  and that the biochemical profile of the para-urethral tissues varies with age.
The key questions are the source of the fluid produced, and its composition. In these research publications, it is suggested that "real" female ejaculation is the release of a very scanty, thick, and whitish fluid from the female prostate,   while the "squirting" or "gushing" shown frequently in pornography is a different phenomenon; the expulsion of clear and abundant fluid, which has been shown to be a diluted fluid from the urinary bladder.
In , Bohlen explained the accepted wisdom: Scientific studies from the s and later have demonstrated that the substance produced is distinct from urine, though it does show similarities such as alkalinity with urine. Seven women claiming to have ejaculations expelled large volumes of urine through the catheter at orgasm, and little to no other fluid.
In individual cases, the exact source of any reported discharge may not be obvious without further investigation. Nature of fluid Critics have maintained that ejaculation is either stress incontinence or vaginal lubrication. Research in this area has concentrated almost exclusively on attempts to prove that the ejaculate is not urine,   measuring substances such as urea , creatinine , prostatic acid phosphatase PAP , prostate specific antigen PSA ,  glucose and fructose  levels.
Early work was contradictory; the initial study on one woman by Addiego and colleagues, reported in ,  could not be confirmed in a subsequent study on 11 women in ,  but was confirmed in another 7 women in The ejaculate was compared to pre-orgasmic urine from the same woman, and also to published data on male ejaculate. In both women, higher levels of PSA, PAP, and glucose but lower levels of creatinine were found in the ejaculate than the urine.
PSA levels were comparable to those in males. Although small amounts of prostatic secretions are present in the emitted fluid, the study suggests that squirting is essentially the involuntary emission of urine during sexual activity.
The actual volume of the para-urethral tissue is quite small. By comparison, male ejaculate varies from 0. One approach is to use a chemical like methylene blue so that any urinary component can be detected. Simultaneous collection of ejaculate also showed PSA in both urine and ejaculate in all cases, but in higher concentration in the ejaculate than in the urine.
A paper in Medical Hypotheses suggests that it may have an anti-microbial function, protecting from urinary tract infections. There is some resistance from feminists to what has been perceived as a male lens in interpreting the data and construct. These tissues, surrounding the distal urethra, and anterior to the vagina, have a common embryological origin to the prostatic tissue in the male.
Bell's critique lies at the heart of feminist concerns about this debate, namely a tendency to "disregard, reinterpret, and overwrite women's subjective descriptions. Bell further questions why feminists have not been more outspoken in defense of women's control over female ejaculation, pointing out that the literature frames the discussion in only five separate ways; procreation, sexual pleasure, deviance, pathology, and a scientific mystery.
Importantly, a number of the women stated that they had been diagnosed with urinary incontinence. The book advances another feminist theory: A new theory of female sexuality" in , emphasising an integrated rather than fragmented approach to understanding female sexuality , with the clitoris, vagina and urethra depicted as a single sexual organ. A modern gynecological myth' by Terrence Hines. The terminology such as female prostate and female ejaculation invoke images of the female as merely an imitation of the male, mapping the female body onto the male, as if, like the Galenic view, it was incomplete.
Others argue it should be retained as a distinctive feminine characteristic distinguishable from the male, and imbued with different properties and purpose. A third concern is that of the increasing 'medicalisation' of women's sexuality, as expressed by Leonore Tiefer which finds its most extreme manifestation in the concept of female sexual dysfunction. Whether it can be learned or not, women report that they can induce it by enhancing their sexual response.
Sundahl describes it as a birthright and essential part of female creativity. Recently, knowledge that these markers can be of female origin has led to acquittal based on forensic evidence.
However, she has commented that she could not ejaculate on cue even though producers expect her to like a male performer. Easy on the Eye Productions considered it a "historic victory"  although the BBFC maintains that its "position remains fundamentally unchanged for future releases".