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Literature[ edit ] From a young age, Dodgson wrote poetry and short stories, contributing heavily to the family magazine Mischmasch and later sending them to various magazines, enjoying moderate success. Between and , his work appeared in the national publications The Comic Times and The Train, as well as smaller magazines such as the Whitby Gazette and the Oxford Critic.

Most of this output was humorous, sometimes satirical, but his standards and ambitions were exacting. La Guida di Bragia. This pseudonym was a play on his real name: Lewis was the anglicised form of Ludovicus, which was the Latin for Lutwidge, and Carroll an Irish surname similar to the Latin name Carolus, from which comes the name Charles. This was then translated back into English as "Carroll Lewis" and then reversed to make "Lewis Carroll".

Westhill, and Louis Carroll. Illustration by John Tenniel , In , Dean i. Dodgson became close friends with Liddell's wife Lorina and their children, particularly the three sisters Lorina, Edith, and Alice Liddell.

He was widely assumed for many years to have derived his own "Alice" from Alice Liddell ; the acrostic poem at the end of Through the Looking Glass spells out her name in full, and there are also many superficial references to her hidden in the text of both books. It has been noted that Dodgson himself repeatedly denied in later life that his "little heroine" was based on any real child, [38] [39] and he frequently dedicated his works to girls of his acquaintance, adding their names in acrostic poems at the beginning of the text.

Gertrude Chataway 's name appears in this form at the beginning of The Hunting of the Snark , and it is not suggested that this means that any of the characters in the narrative are based on her. He told the story to Alice Liddell and she begged him to write it down, and Dodgson eventually after much delay presented her with a handwritten, illustrated manuscript entitled Alice's Adventures Under Ground in November In , he had taken the unfinished manuscript to Macmillan the publisher, who liked it immediately.

After the possible alternative titles were rejected — Alice Among the Fairies and Alice's Golden Hour — the work was finally published as Alice's Adventures in Wonderland in under the Lewis Carroll pen-name, which Dodgson had first used some nine years earlier. Annotated versions provide insights into many of the ideas and hidden meanings that are prevalent in these books.

The fame of his alter ego "Lewis Carroll" soon spread around the world. He was inundated with fan mail and with sometimes unwanted attention. Indeed, according to one popular story, Queen Victoria herself enjoyed Alice In Wonderland so much that she commanded that he dedicate his next book to her, and was accordingly presented with his next work, a scholarly mathematical volume entitled An Elementary Treatise on Determinants.

It is utterly false in every particular: Strong comments in a Times article, "It would have been clean contrary to all his practice to identify [the] author of Alice with the author of his mathematical works". The title page of the first edition erroneously gives "" as the date of publication. His father's death in plunged him into a depression that lasted some years.

It received largely mixed reviews from Carroll's contemporary reviewers, [52] but was enormously popular with the public, having been reprinted seventeen times between and , [53] and has seen various adaptations into musicals, opera, theatre, plays, and music, [54] Painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti reputedly became convinced that the poem was about him. Carroll entwines two plots set in two alternative worlds, one set in rural England and the other in the fairytale kingdoms of Elfland, Outland, and others.

The fairytale world satirizes English society, and more specifically the world of academia. Sylvie and Bruno came out in two volumes and is considered a lesser work, although it has remained in print for over a century. Photography — [ edit ] Photo of Alice Liddell taken by Lewis Carroll In , Dodgson took up the new art form of photography under the influence first of his uncle Skeffington Lutwidge , and later of his Oxford friend Reginald Southey.

He stopped taking photographs because keeping his studio working was too time-consuming. This was a cloth-backed folder with twelve slots, two marked for inserting the most commonly used penny stamp, and one each for the other current denominations up to one shilling.

The folder was then put into a slipcase decorated with a picture of Alice on the front and the Cheshire Cat on the back. It intended to organize stamps wherever one stored their writing utensils; Carroll expressly notes in Eight or Nine Wise Words About Letter-Writing it is not intended to be carried in a pocket or purse, as the most common individual stamps could easily be carried on their own.

The pack included a copy of a pamphletted version of this lecture. Another invention was a writing tablet called the nyctograph that allowed note-taking in the dark, thus eliminating the need to get out of bed and strike a light when one woke with an idea. The device consisted of a gridded card with sixteen squares and system of symbols representing an alphabet of Dodgson's design, using letter shapes similar to the Graffiti writing system on a Palm device.

He appears to have invented — or at least certainly popularized — the "doublet" see word ladder , a form of brain-teaser that is still popular today, changing one word into another by altering one letter at a time, each successive change always resulting in a genuine word. Other items include a rule for finding the day of the week for any date; a means for justifying right margins on a typewriter; a steering device for a velociam a type of tricycle ; new systems of parliamentary representation; [64] more fair elimination rules for tennis tournaments; a new sort of postal money order; rules for reckoning postage; rules for a win in betting; rules for dividing a number by various divisors; a cardboard scale for the Senior Common Room at Christ Church which, held next to a glass, ensured the right amount of liqueur for the price paid; a double-sided adhesive strip to fasten envelopes or mount things in books; a device for helping a bedridden invalid to read from a book placed sideways; and at least two ciphers for cryptography.

Within the academic discipline of mathematics, Dodgson worked primarily in the fields of geometry , linear and matrix algebra , mathematical logic , and recreational mathematics , producing nearly a dozen books under his real name. Dodgson also developed new ideas in linear algebra e. His occupation as Mathematical Lecturer at Christ Church gave him some financial security. Martin Gardner's book on logic machines and diagrams and William Warren Bartley's posthumous publication of the second part of Carroll's symbolic logic book have sparked a reevaluation of Carroll's contributions to symbolic logic.

The algorithm known as Dodgson condensation is closely related to the Schur complement and the Desnanot-Jacobi identity. The discovery in the s of additional ciphers that Carroll had constructed, in addition to his "Memoria Technica", showed that he had employed sophisticated mathematical ideas in their creation. He documented his advice about how to write more satisfying letters in a missive entitled "Eight or Nine Wise Words About Letter-Writing".

He continued to teach at Christ Church until and remained in residence there until his death. The two volumes of his last novel Sylvie and Bruno were published in and , but the intricacy of this work was apparently not appreciated by contemporary readers; it achieved nothing like the success of the Alice books, with disappointing reviews and sales of only 13, copies.

He recounts the travel in his "Russian Journal", which was first commercially published in He died of pneumonia following influenza on 14 January at his sisters' home, "The Chestnuts", in Guildford. He was two weeks away from turning 66 years old.

His funeral was held at the nearby St Mary's Church. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Lewis Carroll portrait of Beatrice Hatch Discussion of Dodgson's sexuality[ edit ] Some late twentieth-century biographers have suggested that Dodgson's interest in children had an erotic element, including Morton N.

Cohen in his Lewis Carroll: Cohen, in particular, claims that Dodgson's "sexual energies sought unconventional outlets", and further writes: We cannot know to what extent sexual urges lay behind Charles's preference for drawing and photographing children in the nude. He contended the preference was entirely aesthetic. He probably felt more than he dared acknowledge, even to himself. He argues that Dodgson may have wanted to marry the year-old Alice Liddell, and that this was the cause of the unexplained "break" with the family in June , [27] an event for which other explanations are offered.

Biographers Derek Hudson and Roger Lancelyn Green stop short of identifying Dodgson as a paedophile Green also edited Dodgson's diaries and papers , but they concur that he had a passion for small female children and next to no interest in the adult world.

Catherine Robson refers to Carroll as "the Victorian era's most famous or infamous girl lover". Lebailly has endeavoured to set Dodgson's child-photography within the "Victorian Child Cult", which perceived child-nudity as essentially an expression of innocence.

Lebailly claims that studies of child nudes were mainstream and fashionable in Dodgson's time, and that most photographers made them as a matter of course, including Oscar Gustave Rejlander and Julia Margaret Cameron. Lebailly continues that child nudes even appeared on Victorian Christmas cards , implying a very different social and aesthetic assessment of such material.

Lebailly concludes that it has been an error of Dodgson's biographers to view his child-photography with 20th- or 21st-century eyes, and to have presented it as some form of personal idiosyncrasy, when it was in fact a response to a prevalent aesthetic and philosophical movement of the time. Karoline Leach 's reappraisal of Dodgson focused in particular on his controversial sexuality. She argues that the allegations of paedophilia rose initially from a misunderstanding of Victorian morals, as well as the mistaken idea — fostered by Dodgson's various biographers — that he had no interest in adult women.

She termed the traditional image of Dodgson "the Carroll Myth". She drew attention to the large amounts of evidence in his diaries and letters that he was also keenly interested in adult women, married and single, and enjoyed several relationships with them that would have been considered scandalous by the social standards of his time. She also pointed to the fact that many of those whom he described as "child-friends" were girls in their late teens and even twenties.

Similarly, Leach points to a biography by Langford Reed as the source of the dubious claim that many of Carroll's female friendships ended when the girls reached the age of fourteen. Ordination[ edit ] Dodgson had been groomed for the ordained ministry in the Church of England from a very early age and was expected to be ordained within four years of obtaining his master's degree, as a condition of his residency at Christ Church.

He delayed the process for some time but was eventually ordained as a deacon on 22 December But when the time came a year later to be ordained as a priest, Dodgson appealed to the dean for permission not to proceed.

This was against college rules and, initially, Dean Liddell told him that he would have to consult the college ruling body, which would almost certainly have resulted in his being expelled. For unknown reasons, Liddell changed his mind overnight and permitted Dodgson to remain at the college in defiance of the rules. There is currently no conclusive evidence about why Dodgson rejected the priesthood. Some have suggested that his stammer made him reluctant to take the step, because he was afraid of having to preach.

But Dodgson did indeed preach in later life, even though not in priest's orders, so it seems unlikely that his impediment was a major factor affecting his choice. He was interested in minority forms of Christianity he was an admirer of F.

Maurice and "alternative" religions theosophy. Most scholars assume that the diary material was removed by family members in the interests of preserving the family name, but this has not been proven. This was also the period of time when he composed his extensive love poetry, leading to speculation that the poems may have been autobiographical. A popular explanation for one missing page 27 June is that it might have been torn out to conceal a proposal of marriage on that day by Dodgson to the year-old Alice Liddell.

However, there has never been any evidence to suggest that this was so, and a paper offers some evidence to the contrary which was discovered by Karoline Leach in the Dodgson family archive in Part of it may have been written at the time when the pages were destroyed, though this is unclear.

The document offers a brief summary of two diary pages that are missing, including the one for 27 June The summary for this page states that Mrs. Liddell told Dodgson that there was gossip circulating about him and the Liddell family's governess , as well as about his relationship with "Ina", presumably Alice's older sister Lorina Liddell. The "break" with the Liddell family that occurred soon after was presumably in response to this gossip.

Lorina was also the name of Alice Liddell's mother. What is deemed most crucial and surprising is that the document seems to imply that Dodgson's break with the family was not connected with Alice at all; until a primary source is discovered, the events of 27 June will remain in doubt. Migraine and epilepsy[ edit ] In his diary for , Dodgson recorded experiencing his first episode of migraine with aura, describing very accurately the process of "moving fortifications" that are a manifestation of the aura stage of the syndrome.

Another form of migraine aura called Alice in Wonderland syndrome has been named after Dodgson's little heroine because its manifestation can resemble the sudden size-changes in the book.

It is also known as micropsia and macropsia , a brain condition affecting the way that objects are perceived by the mind. For example, an afflicted person may look at a larger object such as a basketball and perceive it as if it were the size of a golf ball.

Some authors have suggested that Dodgson may have suffered from this type of aura and used it as an inspiration in his work, but there is no evidence that he did.

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Literature[ edit ] From a young age, Dodgson wrote poetry and short stories, contributing heavily to the family magazine Mischmasch and later sending them to various magazines, enjoying moderate success.

Between and , his work appeared in the national publications The Comic Times and The Train, as well as smaller magazines such as the Whitby Gazette and the Oxford Critic. Most of this output was humorous, sometimes satirical, but his standards and ambitions were exacting. La Guida di Bragia. This pseudonym was a play on his real name: Lewis was the anglicised form of Ludovicus, which was the Latin for Lutwidge, and Carroll an Irish surname similar to the Latin name Carolus, from which comes the name Charles.

This was then translated back into English as "Carroll Lewis" and then reversed to make "Lewis Carroll". Westhill, and Louis Carroll. Illustration by John Tenniel , In , Dean i. Dodgson became close friends with Liddell's wife Lorina and their children, particularly the three sisters Lorina, Edith, and Alice Liddell. He was widely assumed for many years to have derived his own "Alice" from Alice Liddell ; the acrostic poem at the end of Through the Looking Glass spells out her name in full, and there are also many superficial references to her hidden in the text of both books.

It has been noted that Dodgson himself repeatedly denied in later life that his "little heroine" was based on any real child, [38] [39] and he frequently dedicated his works to girls of his acquaintance, adding their names in acrostic poems at the beginning of the text.

Gertrude Chataway 's name appears in this form at the beginning of The Hunting of the Snark , and it is not suggested that this means that any of the characters in the narrative are based on her. He told the story to Alice Liddell and she begged him to write it down, and Dodgson eventually after much delay presented her with a handwritten, illustrated manuscript entitled Alice's Adventures Under Ground in November In , he had taken the unfinished manuscript to Macmillan the publisher, who liked it immediately.

After the possible alternative titles were rejected — Alice Among the Fairies and Alice's Golden Hour — the work was finally published as Alice's Adventures in Wonderland in under the Lewis Carroll pen-name, which Dodgson had first used some nine years earlier.

Annotated versions provide insights into many of the ideas and hidden meanings that are prevalent in these books. The fame of his alter ego "Lewis Carroll" soon spread around the world.

He was inundated with fan mail and with sometimes unwanted attention. Indeed, according to one popular story, Queen Victoria herself enjoyed Alice In Wonderland so much that she commanded that he dedicate his next book to her, and was accordingly presented with his next work, a scholarly mathematical volume entitled An Elementary Treatise on Determinants.

It is utterly false in every particular: Strong comments in a Times article, "It would have been clean contrary to all his practice to identify [the] author of Alice with the author of his mathematical works". The title page of the first edition erroneously gives "" as the date of publication. His father's death in plunged him into a depression that lasted some years. It received largely mixed reviews from Carroll's contemporary reviewers, [52] but was enormously popular with the public, having been reprinted seventeen times between and , [53] and has seen various adaptations into musicals, opera, theatre, plays, and music, [54] Painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti reputedly became convinced that the poem was about him.

Carroll entwines two plots set in two alternative worlds, one set in rural England and the other in the fairytale kingdoms of Elfland, Outland, and others. The fairytale world satirizes English society, and more specifically the world of academia.

Sylvie and Bruno came out in two volumes and is considered a lesser work, although it has remained in print for over a century. Photography — [ edit ] Photo of Alice Liddell taken by Lewis Carroll In , Dodgson took up the new art form of photography under the influence first of his uncle Skeffington Lutwidge , and later of his Oxford friend Reginald Southey.

He stopped taking photographs because keeping his studio working was too time-consuming. This was a cloth-backed folder with twelve slots, two marked for inserting the most commonly used penny stamp, and one each for the other current denominations up to one shilling. The folder was then put into a slipcase decorated with a picture of Alice on the front and the Cheshire Cat on the back. It intended to organize stamps wherever one stored their writing utensils; Carroll expressly notes in Eight or Nine Wise Words About Letter-Writing it is not intended to be carried in a pocket or purse, as the most common individual stamps could easily be carried on their own.

The pack included a copy of a pamphletted version of this lecture. Another invention was a writing tablet called the nyctograph that allowed note-taking in the dark, thus eliminating the need to get out of bed and strike a light when one woke with an idea. The device consisted of a gridded card with sixteen squares and system of symbols representing an alphabet of Dodgson's design, using letter shapes similar to the Graffiti writing system on a Palm device.

He appears to have invented — or at least certainly popularized — the "doublet" see word ladder , a form of brain-teaser that is still popular today, changing one word into another by altering one letter at a time, each successive change always resulting in a genuine word. Other items include a rule for finding the day of the week for any date; a means for justifying right margins on a typewriter; a steering device for a velociam a type of tricycle ; new systems of parliamentary representation; [64] more fair elimination rules for tennis tournaments; a new sort of postal money order; rules for reckoning postage; rules for a win in betting; rules for dividing a number by various divisors; a cardboard scale for the Senior Common Room at Christ Church which, held next to a glass, ensured the right amount of liqueur for the price paid; a double-sided adhesive strip to fasten envelopes or mount things in books; a device for helping a bedridden invalid to read from a book placed sideways; and at least two ciphers for cryptography.

Within the academic discipline of mathematics, Dodgson worked primarily in the fields of geometry , linear and matrix algebra , mathematical logic , and recreational mathematics , producing nearly a dozen books under his real name.

Dodgson also developed new ideas in linear algebra e. His occupation as Mathematical Lecturer at Christ Church gave him some financial security. Martin Gardner's book on logic machines and diagrams and William Warren Bartley's posthumous publication of the second part of Carroll's symbolic logic book have sparked a reevaluation of Carroll's contributions to symbolic logic.

The algorithm known as Dodgson condensation is closely related to the Schur complement and the Desnanot-Jacobi identity. The discovery in the s of additional ciphers that Carroll had constructed, in addition to his "Memoria Technica", showed that he had employed sophisticated mathematical ideas in their creation.

He documented his advice about how to write more satisfying letters in a missive entitled "Eight or Nine Wise Words About Letter-Writing". He continued to teach at Christ Church until and remained in residence there until his death.

The two volumes of his last novel Sylvie and Bruno were published in and , but the intricacy of this work was apparently not appreciated by contemporary readers; it achieved nothing like the success of the Alice books, with disappointing reviews and sales of only 13, copies. He recounts the travel in his "Russian Journal", which was first commercially published in He died of pneumonia following influenza on 14 January at his sisters' home, "The Chestnuts", in Guildford.

He was two weeks away from turning 66 years old. His funeral was held at the nearby St Mary's Church. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Lewis Carroll portrait of Beatrice Hatch Discussion of Dodgson's sexuality[ edit ] Some late twentieth-century biographers have suggested that Dodgson's interest in children had an erotic element, including Morton N. Cohen in his Lewis Carroll: Cohen, in particular, claims that Dodgson's "sexual energies sought unconventional outlets", and further writes: We cannot know to what extent sexual urges lay behind Charles's preference for drawing and photographing children in the nude.

He contended the preference was entirely aesthetic. He probably felt more than he dared acknowledge, even to himself. He argues that Dodgson may have wanted to marry the year-old Alice Liddell, and that this was the cause of the unexplained "break" with the family in June , [27] an event for which other explanations are offered.

Biographers Derek Hudson and Roger Lancelyn Green stop short of identifying Dodgson as a paedophile Green also edited Dodgson's diaries and papers , but they concur that he had a passion for small female children and next to no interest in the adult world. Catherine Robson refers to Carroll as "the Victorian era's most famous or infamous girl lover".

Lebailly has endeavoured to set Dodgson's child-photography within the "Victorian Child Cult", which perceived child-nudity as essentially an expression of innocence.

Lebailly claims that studies of child nudes were mainstream and fashionable in Dodgson's time, and that most photographers made them as a matter of course, including Oscar Gustave Rejlander and Julia Margaret Cameron. Lebailly continues that child nudes even appeared on Victorian Christmas cards , implying a very different social and aesthetic assessment of such material.

Lebailly concludes that it has been an error of Dodgson's biographers to view his child-photography with 20th- or 21st-century eyes, and to have presented it as some form of personal idiosyncrasy, when it was in fact a response to a prevalent aesthetic and philosophical movement of the time. Karoline Leach 's reappraisal of Dodgson focused in particular on his controversial sexuality.

She argues that the allegations of paedophilia rose initially from a misunderstanding of Victorian morals, as well as the mistaken idea — fostered by Dodgson's various biographers — that he had no interest in adult women.

She termed the traditional image of Dodgson "the Carroll Myth". She drew attention to the large amounts of evidence in his diaries and letters that he was also keenly interested in adult women, married and single, and enjoyed several relationships with them that would have been considered scandalous by the social standards of his time.

She also pointed to the fact that many of those whom he described as "child-friends" were girls in their late teens and even twenties. Similarly, Leach points to a biography by Langford Reed as the source of the dubious claim that many of Carroll's female friendships ended when the girls reached the age of fourteen. Ordination[ edit ] Dodgson had been groomed for the ordained ministry in the Church of England from a very early age and was expected to be ordained within four years of obtaining his master's degree, as a condition of his residency at Christ Church.

He delayed the process for some time but was eventually ordained as a deacon on 22 December But when the time came a year later to be ordained as a priest, Dodgson appealed to the dean for permission not to proceed. This was against college rules and, initially, Dean Liddell told him that he would have to consult the college ruling body, which would almost certainly have resulted in his being expelled.

For unknown reasons, Liddell changed his mind overnight and permitted Dodgson to remain at the college in defiance of the rules. There is currently no conclusive evidence about why Dodgson rejected the priesthood. Some have suggested that his stammer made him reluctant to take the step, because he was afraid of having to preach. But Dodgson did indeed preach in later life, even though not in priest's orders, so it seems unlikely that his impediment was a major factor affecting his choice.

He was interested in minority forms of Christianity he was an admirer of F. Maurice and "alternative" religions theosophy. Most scholars assume that the diary material was removed by family members in the interests of preserving the family name, but this has not been proven. This was also the period of time when he composed his extensive love poetry, leading to speculation that the poems may have been autobiographical. A popular explanation for one missing page 27 June is that it might have been torn out to conceal a proposal of marriage on that day by Dodgson to the year-old Alice Liddell.

However, there has never been any evidence to suggest that this was so, and a paper offers some evidence to the contrary which was discovered by Karoline Leach in the Dodgson family archive in Part of it may have been written at the time when the pages were destroyed, though this is unclear.

The document offers a brief summary of two diary pages that are missing, including the one for 27 June The summary for this page states that Mrs. Liddell told Dodgson that there was gossip circulating about him and the Liddell family's governess , as well as about his relationship with "Ina", presumably Alice's older sister Lorina Liddell.

The "break" with the Liddell family that occurred soon after was presumably in response to this gossip. Lorina was also the name of Alice Liddell's mother. What is deemed most crucial and surprising is that the document seems to imply that Dodgson's break with the family was not connected with Alice at all; until a primary source is discovered, the events of 27 June will remain in doubt.

Migraine and epilepsy[ edit ] In his diary for , Dodgson recorded experiencing his first episode of migraine with aura, describing very accurately the process of "moving fortifications" that are a manifestation of the aura stage of the syndrome. Another form of migraine aura called Alice in Wonderland syndrome has been named after Dodgson's little heroine because its manifestation can resemble the sudden size-changes in the book.

It is also known as micropsia and macropsia , a brain condition affecting the way that objects are perceived by the mind. For example, an afflicted person may look at a larger object such as a basketball and perceive it as if it were the size of a golf ball. Some authors have suggested that Dodgson may have suffered from this type of aura and used it as an inspiration in his work, but there is no evidence that he did.

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  1. He continued to teach at Christ Church until and remained in residence there until his death. He probably felt more than he dared acknowledge, even to himself.

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