Dutch schoolmaster and children, A primary school teacher in northern Laos The teacher-student-monument in Rostock , Germany, honors teachers Teachers facilitate student learning, often in a school or academy or perhaps in another environment such as outdoors. GDR "village teacher", a teacher teaching students of all age groups in one class in Jewish children with their teacher in Samarkand , the beginning of the 20th century. The objective is typically accomplished through either an informal or formal approach to learning, including a course of study and lesson plan that teaches skills , knowledge or thinking skills.
Different ways to teach are often referred to as pedagogy. When deciding what teaching method to use teachers consider students' background knowledge, environment, and their learning goals as well as standardized curricula as determined by the relevant authority. Many times, teachers assist in learning outside of the classroom by accompanying students on field trips.
The increasing use of technology , specifically the rise of the internet over the past decade, has begun to shape the way teachers approach their roles in the classroom. The objective is typically a course of study, lesson plan , or a practical skill.
A teacher may follow standardized curricula as determined by the relevant authority. The teacher may interact with students of different ages, from infants to adults , students with different abilities and students with learning disabilities. Teaching using pedagogy also involve assessing the educational levels of the students on particular skills.
Understanding the pedagogy of the students in a classroom involves using differentiated instruction as well as supervision to meet the needs of all students in the classroom. Pedagogy can be thought of in two manners. First, teaching itself can be taught in many different ways, hence, using a pedagogy of teaching styles. For example, an experienced teacher and parent described the place of a teacher in learning as follows: The function of the teacher is to pressure the lazy, inspire the bored, deflate the cocky, encourage the timid, detect and correct individual flaws, and broaden the viewpoint of all.
This function looks like that of a coach using the whole gamut of psychology to get each new class of rookies off the bench and into the game. In primary schools each class has a teacher who stays with them for most of the week and will teach them the whole curriculum. In secondary schools they will be taught by different subject specialists each session during the week and may have ten or more different teachers.
The relationship between children and their teachers tends to be closer in the primary school where they act as form tutor, specialist teacher and surrogate parent during the course of the day.
This is true throughout most of the United States as well. However, alternative approaches for primary education do exist. One of these, sometimes referred to as a "platoon" system, involves placing a group of students together in one class that moves from one specialist to another for every subject.
The advantage here is that students learn from teachers who specialize in one subject and who tend to be more knowledgeable in that one area than a teacher who teaches many subjects. Students still derive a strong sense of security by staying with the same group of peers for all classes. Co-teaching has also become a new trend amongst educational institutions. Co-teaching is defined as two or more teachers working harmoniously to fulfill the needs of every student in the classroom.
Co-teaching focuses the student on learning by providing a social networking support that allows them to reach their full cognitive potential.
Co-teachers work in sync with one another to create a climate of learning. Classroom management Main articles: School discipline and School punishment Throughout the history of education the most common form of school discipline was corporal punishment.
While a child was in school, a teacher was expected to act as a substitute parent , with all the normal forms of parental discipline open to them.
Medieval schoolboy birched on the bare buttocks In past times, corporal punishment spanking or paddling or caning or strapping or birching the student in order to cause physical pain was one of the most common forms of school discipline throughout much of the world. Most Western countries, and some others, have now banned it, but it remains lawful in the United States following a US Supreme Court decision in which held that paddling did not violate the US Constitution.
It is still used to a significant though declining degree in some public schools in Alabama , Arkansas , Georgia , Louisiana , Mississippi , Oklahoma , Tennessee and Texas. Private schools in these and most other states may also use it. Corporal punishment in American schools is administered to the seat of the student's trousers or skirt with a specially made wooden paddle. This often used to take place in the classroom or hallway, but nowadays the punishment is usually given privately in the principal's office.
Official corporal punishment, often by caning , remains commonplace in schools in some Asian , African and Caribbean countries. For details of individual countries see School corporal punishment.
Currently detention is one of the most common punishments in schools in the United States , the UK , Ireland , Singapore and other countries. It requires the pupil to remain in school at a given time in the school day such as lunch, recess or after school ; or even to attend school on a non-school day, e. During detention, students normally have to sit in a classroom and do work, write lines or a punishment essay, or sit quietly.
A modern example of school discipline in North America and Western Europe relies upon the idea of an assertive teacher who is prepared to impose their will upon a class. Positive reinforcement is balanced with immediate and fair punishment for misbehavior and firm, clear boundaries define what is appropriate and inappropriate behavior. Teachers are expected to respect their students; sarcasm and attempts to humiliate pupils are seen as falling outside of what constitutes reasonable discipline.
This viewpoint is supported by the educational attainment of countries—in East Asia for instance—that combine strict discipline with high standards of education. In Japan , for example, although average attainment on standardized tests may exceed those in Western countries, classroom discipline and behavior is highly problematic. Although, officially, schools have extremely rigid codes of behavior, in practice many teachers find the students unmanageable and do not enforce discipline at all.
Where school class sizes are typically 40 to 50 students, maintaining order in the classroom can divert the teacher from instruction, leaving little opportunity for concentration and focus on what is being taught. In response, teachers may concentrate their attention on motivated students, ignoring attention-seeking and disruptive students. The result of this is that motivated students, facing demanding university entrance examinations, receive disproportionate resources.
Given the emphasis on attainment of university places, administrators and governors may regard this policy as appropriate. Obligation to honor students rights Main article: Discipline in Sudbury Model Democratic Schools Sudbury model democratic schools claim that popularly based authority can maintain order more effectively than dictatorial authority for governments and schools alike. They also claim that in these schools the preservation of public order is easier and more efficient than anywhere else.
Primarily because rules and regulations are made by the community as a whole, thence the school atmosphere is one of persuasion and negotiation, rather than confrontation since there is no one to confront. Sudbury model democratic schools' proponents argue that a school that has good, clear laws, fairly and democratically passed by the entire school community, and a good judicial system for enforcing these laws, is a school in which community discipline prevails, and in which an increasingly sophisticated concept of law and order develops, against other schools today, where rules are arbitrary, authority is absolute, punishment is capricious, and due process of law is unknown.
Occupational hazard Teachers face several occupational hazards in their line of work, including occupational stress , which can negatively impact teachers' mental and physical health, productivity, and students' performance. Stress can be caused by organizational change, relationships with students, fellow teachers, and administrative personnel, working environment, expectations to substitute, long hours with a heavy workload, and inspections.
Teachers are also at high risk for occupational burnout. A study found that teachers experienced double the rate of anxiety, depression, and stress than average workers. Organizational interventions, like changing teachers' schedules, providing support networks and mentoring, changing the work environment, and offering promotions and bonuses, may be effective in helping to reduce occupational stress among teachers. Individual-level interventions, including stress-management training and counseling, are also used to relieve occupational stress among teachers.
This leads to some stagnancy, as there is not sufficient interests to enter the profession. Teaching around the world Teacher and pupils in liberated Guinea-Bissau , Math and physics teacher at a junior college in Sweden , in the s There are many similarities and differences among teachers around the world. In almost all countries teachers are educated in a university or college. Governments may require certification by a recognized body before they can teach in a school.
In many countries, elementary school education certificate is earned after completion of high school. The high school student follows an education specialty track, obtain the prerequisite "student-teaching" time, and receive a special diploma to begin teaching after graduation. In addition to certification, many educational institutions especially within the US, require that prospective teachers pass a background check and psychiatric evaluation to be able to teach in classroom.
This is not always the case with adult further learning institutions but is fast becoming the norm in many countries as security  concerns grow. International schools generally follow an English-speaking, Western curriculum and are aimed at expatriate communities.
Education in Australia Education in Australia is primarily the responsibility of the individual states and territories. In most provinces a second Bachelor's Degree such as a Bachelor of Education is required to become a qualified teacher.
Teachers have the option to teach for a public school which is funded by the provincial government or teaching in a private school which is funded by the private sector, businesses and sponsors. France In France , teachers, or professors, are mainly civil servants, recruited by competitive examination.
Education in Germany In Germany , teachers are mainly civil servants recruited in special university classes, called Lehramtstudien Teaching Education Studies. There are many differences between the teachers for elementary schools Grundschule , lower secondary schools Hauptschule , middle level secondary schools Realschule and higher level secondary schools Gymnasium. Salaries for teachers depend on the civil servants' salary index scale Bundesbesoldungsordnung.
Education in the Republic of Ireland Salaries for primary teachers in Ireland depend mainly on seniority i. Extra pay is also given for teaching through the Irish language , in a Gaeltacht area or on an island. A principal of a large school with many years experience and several qualifications M. These procedures apply to teaching and also to non-teaching posts and those who refuse vetting "cannot be appointed or engaged by the school in any capacity including in a voluntary role".
Existing staff will be vetted on a phased basis.