The Act was an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut. Pierson lived in Killingworth now Clinton. The school moved to Saybrook and then Wethersfield. In , it moved to New Haven, Connecticut. Meanwhile, there was a rift forming at Harvard between its sixth president, Increase Mather , and the rest of the Harvard clergy, whom Mather viewed as increasingly liberal, ecclesiastically lax, and overly broad in Church polity.
The feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not. Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to "Yale College". The shipment of books represented the best of modern English literature, science, philosophy and theology. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Locke's works and developed his original theology known as the "new divinity".
In the Rector and six of his friends, who had a study group to discuss the new ideas, announced that they had given up Calvinism, become Arminians and joined the Church of England. They were ordained in England and returned to the colonies as missionaries for the Anglican faith. Thomas Clapp became president in and struggled to return the college to Calvinist orthodoxy, but he did not close the library.
Other students found Deist books in the library. They were both instrumental in developing the scientific curriculum at Yale, while dealing with wars, student tumults, graffiti, "irrelevance" of curricula, desperate need for endowment and fights with the Connecticut legislature.
A graduate of Yale, Stiles came to the college with experience in education, having played an integral role in the founding of Brown University in addition to having been a minister.
However, Yale graduate Edmund Fanning , Secretary to the British General in command of the occupation, interceded and the College was saved. In , Fanning was granted an honorary degree LL. During the period, Harvard was distinctive for the stability and maturity of its tutor corps, while Yale had youth and zeal on its side. The first such organizations were debating societies: Crotonia in , Linonia in and Brothers in Unity in Unlike higher education in Europe, there was no national curriculum for colleges and universities in the United States.
In the competition for students and financial support, college leaders strove to keep current with demands for innovation. At the same time, they realized that a significant portion of their students and prospective students demanded a classical background. The Yale report meant the classics would not be abandoned. All institutions experimented with changes in the curriculum, often resulting in a dual-track. In the decentralized environment of higher education in the United States, balancing change with tradition was a common challenge because no one could afford to be completely modern or completely classical.
They concentrated on developing a whole man possessed of religious values sufficiently strong to resist temptations from within, yet flexible enough to adjust to the 'isms' professionalism, materialism, individualism, and consumerism tempting him from without. He bested President Noah Porter , who disliked social science and wanted Yale to lock into its traditions of classical education.
Porter objected to Sumner's use of a textbook by Herbert Spencer that espoused agnostic materialism because it might harm students. In , under an act passed by the Connecticut General Assembly , Yale gained its current, and shorter, name of "Yale University". Western painter Frederic Remington Yale was an artist whose heroes gloried in combat and tests of strength in the Wild West.
The fictional, turn-of-theth-century Yale man Frank Merriwell embodied the heroic ideal without racial prejudice, and his fictional successor Frank Stover in the novel Stover at Yale questioned the business mentality that had become prevalent at the school.
Increasingly the students turned to athletic stars as their heroes, especially since winning the big game became the goal of the student body, and the alumni, as well as the team itself.
Between , when Harvard and Yale met in one of the first intercollegiate debates  and the year of the first Triangular Debate of Harvard, Yale and Princeton the rhetoric, symbolism, and metaphors used in athletics were used to frame these early debates. Debates were covered on front pages of college newspapers and emphasized in yearbooks, and team members even received the equivalent of athletic letters for their jackets.
There even were rallies sending off the debating teams to matches, but the debates never attained the broad appeal that athletics enjoyed. One reason may be that debates do not have a clear winner, as is the case in sports, and that scoring is subjective. In addition, with late 19th-century concerns about the impact of modern life on the human body, athletics offered hope that neither the individual nor the society was coming apart. There was a mood of alarm and mistrust, and, while the crisis was developing, the presidents of Harvard, Yale, and Princeton developed a project to reform the sport and forestall possible radical changes forced by government upon the sport.
President Arthur Hadley of Yale, A. Lawrence Lowell of Harvard, and Woodrow Wilson of Princeton worked to develop moderate changes to reduce injuries. Their attempts, however, were reduced by rebellion against the rules committee and formation of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association.
The big three had tried to operate independently of the majority, but changes did reduce injuries. It would also reorganize its relationship with the Sheffield Scientific School. Expansion caused controversy about Yale's new roles. Noah Porter , moral philosopher, was president from to During an age of tremendous expansion in higher education, Porter resisted the rise of the new research university, claiming that an eager embrace of its ideals would corrupt undergraduate education.
Many of Porter's contemporaries criticized his administration, and historians since have disparaged his leadership.
Levesque argues Porter was not a simple-minded reactionary, uncritically committed to tradition, but a principled and selective conservative.
He may have misunderstood some of the challenges of his time, but he correctly anticipated the enduring tensions that have accompanied the emergence and growth of the modern university. The money went toward behavioral science research, which was supported by foundation officers who aimed to "improve mankind" under an informal, loosely defined human engineering effort. The behavioral scientists at Yale, led by President James R. Angell and psychobiologist Robert M. Yerkes , tapped into foundation largesse by crafting research programs aimed to investigate, then suggest, ways to control, sexual and social behavior.
For example, Yerkes analyzed chimpanzee sexual behavior in hopes of illuminating the evolutionary underpinnings of human development and providing information that could ameliorate dysfunction. Ultimately, the behavioral-science results disappointed foundation officers, who shifted their human-engineering funds toward biological sciences. Yale proved important as a site for this research.
Pickford , and G. Evelyn Hutchinson , and their members included both graduate students and more experienced scientists. All produced innovative research, including the opening of new subfields in embryology, endocrinology, and ecology, respectively, over a long period of time.
Harrison's group is shown to have been a classic research school; Pickford's and Hutchinson's were not. Pickford's group was successful in spite of her lack of departmental or institutional position or power. Hutchinson and his graduate and postgraduate students were extremely productive, but in diverse areas of ecology rather than one focused area of research or the use of one set of research tools.
Hutchinson's example shows that new models for research groups are needed, especially for those that include extensive field research. Dedicated to the new scientific medicine established in Germany, he was equally fervent about "social medicine" and the study of humans in their culture and environment. He established the "Yale System" of teaching, with few lectures and fewer exams, and strengthened the full-time faculty system; he also created the graduate-level Yale School of Nursing and the Psychiatry Department, and built numerous new buildings.
Progress toward his plans for an Institute of Human Relations, envisioned as a refuge where social scientists would collaborate with biological scientists in a holistic study of humankind, unfortunately lasted for only a few years before the opposition of resentful anti-Semitic colleagues drove him to resign. By , this condition had been altered dramatically, as numerous members of those groups held faculty positions.
Norman Holmes Pearson , who worked for the Office of Strategic Studies in London during World War II, returned to Yale and headed the new American studies program, in which scholarship quickly became an instrument of promoting liberty.
Popular among undergraduates, the program sought to instruct them in the fundamentals of American civilization and thereby instill a sense of nationalism and national purpose. Coe was concerned to celebrate the 'values' of the Western United States in order to meet the "threat of communism". Vassar, then all-female and part of the Seven Sisters —elite higher education schools that historically served as sister institutions to the Ivy League when the Ivy League still only admitted men—tentatively accepted, but then declined the invitation.
Both schools introduced coeducation independently in The undergraduate class of was the first class to have women starting from freshman year;  at the time, all undergraduate women were housed in Vanderbilt Hall at the south end of Old Campus. While unsuccessful in the courts, the legal reasoning behind the case changed the landscape of sex discrimination law and resulted in the establishment of Yale's Grievance Board and the Yale Women's Center.
Under President Levin, Yale has financially supported many of New Haven's efforts to reinvigorate the city. Evidence suggests that the town and gown relationships are mutually beneficial. Still, the economic power of the university increased dramatically with its financial success amid a decline in the local economy. Second, in our graduate and professional schools, as well as in Yale College, we are committed to the education of leaders.
Bush , a Yale alumnus, criticized the university for the snobbery and intellectual arrogance he encountered as a student there.
Presidential election between and Bush , Bill Clinton , and George W. Several explanations have been offered for Yale's representation in national elections since the end of the Vietnam War. Various sources note the spirit of campus activism that has existed at Yale since the s, and the intellectual influence of Reverend William Sloane Coffin on many of the future candidates.
Brodhead , former dean of Yale College and now president of Duke University , stated: Bush benefited from preferential admissions policies for the "son and grandson of alumni", and for a "member of a politically influential family". Bush Yale '48 derided Michael Dukakis for having "foreign-policy views born in Harvard Yard's boutique". When challenged on the distinction between Dukakis' Harvard connection and his own Yale background, he said that, unlike Harvard, Yale's reputation was "so diffuse, there isn't a symbol, I don't think, in the Yale situation, any symbolism in it" and said Yale did not share Harvard's reputation for "liberalism and elitism".
Yale changed so much between the class of '68 and the class of ' My class was the first class to have women in it; it was the first class to have a significant effort to recruit African Americans. It was an extraordinary time, and in that span of time is the change of an entire generation". President Richard Levin noted that Yale has hundreds of other partnerships across the world, but "no existing collaboration matches the scale of the new partnership with UCL".
Jackson Institute for Global Affairs, promoting international education University-wide; Global Health Initiative, uniting and expanding global health efforts across campus; Yale India Initiative, expanding the study of and engagement with India; Yale Center for the Study of Globalization, bridging the gap between academia and the world of public policy; and Yale China Law Center, promoting the rule of law in China.
Yale — Management Guild New global research and educational partnerships included among many others: The most ambitious international partnership to date is Yale-NUS College in Singapore, a joint effort with the National University of Singapore to create a new liberal arts college in Asia featuring an innovative curriculum that weaves Western and Asian traditions, set to open in August