Article 15 of the Constitution of India states that: Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth 1 The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them 2 No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to a access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and palaces of public entertainment; or b the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the general public Transgender rights[ edit ] In India, one group of transgender people are called hijras.
They were legally granted voting rights as a third sex in The Court also right that the Indian Constitution mandates the recognition of a third gender. It also contains provisions to prohibit discrimination in employment as well as prevent abuse, violence and exploitation of transgender people. The bill also provides for the establishment of welfare boards at the centre and state level as well as for transgender rights courts. The bill was introduced by DMK MP Tiruchi Siva, and marked the first time the upper house had passed a private member's bill in 45 years.
However, the bill contains several anomalies and a lack of clarity on how various ministries will coordinate to implement its provisions. Social Justice and Empowerment Minister Thaawar Chand Gehlot stated on 11 June that the Government would introduce a new comprehensive bill for transgender rights in the Monsoon session of Parliament. The bill will be based on the study on transgender issues conducted by a committee appointed on 27 January According to Gehlot, the Government intends to provide transgender people with all rights and entitlements currently enjoyed by scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.
Akkai Padmashali criticised the bill's definition of transgenderism, which states transgender people are "based on the underlying assumption of biological determinism". According to the transgender welfare policy, transgender people can access free sex reassignment surgery SRS in government hospitals only for male-to-female ; free housing program; various citizenship documents; admission in government colleges with full scholarship for higher studies; alternative sources of livelihood through formation of self-help groups for savings and initiating income-generation programmes IGP.
Tamil Nadu was also the first state to form a transgender welfare board with representatives from the transgender community. In , Kerala started implementing free SRS in government hospitals. This was aimed at improving their overall social and economic status, according to the Odisha Department of Social Security. Educational institutions will address issues of violence, abuse and discrimination against transgender people. It also established a monitoring committee designed with investigating reports of discrimination.
Chandrababu Naidu , the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh , announced the enactment of pension plans for transgender people. On 16 December , the Andhra Cabinet passed the policy. In addition, the Government will construct special toilets in public places, like malls and cinema halls, for transgender people. Samuthiram is the first Tamil novel about Aravaani community in Tamil Nadu published in Later, transgender activist A.
Revathi became the first hijra to write about transgender issues and gender politics in Tamil. Her works have been translated into more than eight languages and act as a primary resource on gender studies in Asia. Her book is part of a research project for more than universities. She is the author of Unarvum Uruvamum Feelings of the Entire Body , the first of its kind in English from a member of the hijra community.
The Truth about Me: A Hijra Life Story by transgender A. Revathi is part of the syllabus for final year students of The American College in Madurai. The American College is the first college in India to introduce third gender literature and studies with research-oriented seminars, and the Tamil terms for genderqueer people was coined in this college by gender activist Gopi Shankar.
These practices usually involve electroconvulsive therapy which may lead to memory loss , hypnosis, the administration of nausea-inducing drugs, or more commonly talk therapy where the individual is told that homosexuality is caused by "insufficient male affirmation in childhood" or "an uncaring father and an overbearing mother".
Conversion therapy can lead to depression, anxiety, seizures, drug use and suicidal tendencies for the individuals invloved. Among other subjects, the material discusses homosexuality. The material states, "Yes, adolescents frequently fall in love. They can feel attraction for a friend or any individual of the same or opposite sex. It is normal to have special feelings for someone.
It is important for adolescents to understand that such relationships are based on mutual consent, trust, transparency and respect. It is alright to talk about such feelings to the person for whom you have them but always in a respectful manner. Munni ran for the elections as well for South Mumbai that year.
Over the next few years, multiple other transgender candidates won office. Shabnam Mausi is the first transgender Indian or hijra to be elected to public office. Hijras were granted voting rights in in India. In , hijras in Madhya Pradesh announced the establishment of their own political party called "Jeeti Jitayi Politics" JJP , which literally means 'politics that has already been won'.
The party also has released an eight-page election manifesto which it claims outlines why it is different from mainstream political parties. Heera Bai became the first member of the Telangana Legislative Assembly to win a seat. In the assembly elections, Kalki tried in vain to get a DMK ticket. Prithika Yashini became the first transgender police officer in the state of Tamil Nadu. At the time, the Tamil Nadu police had three transgender constables, but Yashini became the first trans person to hold the rank of officer in the state.
As per the Supreme Court's judgment, transgenders must be recognised as the third gender in our country. As per the norm, we have put in efforts and included two transgenders Mayuri Alawekar and Yuvraj Alavankar as panel members. The most well-known third-gender group in India is the hijra of northern India. The hijras of India, as follows: Intersex human rights and Intersex medical interventions Intersex persons are not protected from violations to physical integrity and bodily autonomy.
Cases of infanticide have been reported involving infants with obvious intersex conditions at birth, along with a failure to thrive by infants assigned female. Discrimination against intersex people Multiple Indian athletes have been subjected to humiliation, discrimination and loss of work and medals following sex verification.