From the beginning of African slavery in the North American colonies, slaves were often viewed as property, rather than people. Slave women , men and children were often raped by white overseers, planter's younger sons before they married, other white men and in some cases white women associated with the slaveholders. Some were sold into brothels outright. Slave breeding was the attempt by a slave-owner to influence the reproduction of his slaves for profit.
Franklin Frazier , in his book The Negro Family, stated that "there were masters who, without any regard for the preferences of their slaves, mated their human chattel as they did their stock. They was weighed and tested. A man would rent the stockman and put him in a room with some young women he wanted to raise children from.
In this period there was a shortage of European women, as the colonies were dominated in the early day by male explorers and colonists. Given the harsh conditions in Louisiana, persuading women to follow the men was not easy. France sent females convicted along with their debtor husbands, and in , deported women felons "who were of a character to be sent to the French settlement in Louisiana. Through warfare and raids, Native American women were often captured to be traded, sold, or taken as wives.
At first, the colony generally imported male Africans to use as slave labor because of the heavy work of clearing to develop plantations. Over time, it also imported African female slaves. Marriage between the races was forbidden according to the Code Noir of the eighteenth century, but interracial sex continued. The upper class European men during this period often did not marry until their late twenties or early thirties.
Premarital sex with an intended white bride, especially if she was of high rank, was not permitted socially.
White male colonists, often the younger sons of noblemen, military men, and planters, who needed to accumulate some wealth before they could marry, took women of color as consorts before marriage. Merchants and administrators also followed this practice if they were wealthy enough.
A white man might rape a slave as young as twelve. Post-emancipation[ edit ] After slaves were emancipated, many states passed anti-miscegenation laws , which prohibited interracial marriage between whites and non-whites. But this did not stop some white men from taking sexual advantage of black women by using their social positions under the Jim Crow system and white supremacy , or in other parts of the country by ordinary power and wealth dynamics.
The Chinese Tanka females were sold from Guangzhou to work as prostitutes for the overseas Chinese male community in the United States. Many of these girls were forced into opium addiction and lived their entire lives as prostitutes. Used as a prostitute for sale to American soldiers at Cantonment in the Indian Territory , she lived in slavery until about when she died of a hemorrhage resulting from "excessive sexual intercourse".
Increased urbanization and young women entering the workforce led to greater flexibility in courtship without supervision. It is in this changing social sphere that the panic over "white slavery" began. This term referred to women being kidnapped for the purposes of prostitution. The second significant action at the local levels was to close the brothels and the red light districts. From to , city after city withdrew this tolerance and forced the closing of their brothels.
Opposition to openly practiced prostitution had been growing steadily throughout the last decades of the 19th century. The federal government's response to the moral panic was the Mann Act. The purpose of the act was to make it a crime to coerce transportation of unwilling women. The statute made it a crime to "transport or cause to be transported, or aid to assist in obtaining transportation for" or to "persuade, induce, entice or coerce" a woman to travel.
One thing should be made very clear to the girl who comes up to the city, and that is that the ordinary ice cream parlor is very likely to be a spider's web for her entanglement. This is perhaps especially true of those ice cream saloons and fruit stores kept by foreigners. Scores of cases are on record where young girls have taken their first step towards "white slavery" in places of this character. Its primary stated intent was to address prostitution, immorality, and human trafficking particularly where it was trafficking for the purposes of prostitution, but the ambiguity of "immoral purpose" effectively criminalized interracial marriage and banned single women from crossing state borders for morally wrong acts.
As more women were being trafficked from foreign countries, the US began passing immigration acts to curtail aliens from entering the country. Following the banning of immigrants during the s, human trafficking was not considered a major issue until the s. Its members were nine countries, and several non-governmental organizations.
An important development was the implementation of a system of annual reports of member countries. Member countries formed their own centralized offices to track and report on trafficking of women and children. An international conference of central authorities in Asia was planned for , but no further action was taken during the late s. Sex trafficking in the United States Act 18 U. The TVPA strengthened services to victims of violence, law enforcements ability to reduce violence against women and children, and education against human trafficking.
Also specified in the TVPA was a mandate to collect funds for the treatment of sex trafficking victims that provided them with shelter, food, education, and financial grants. Internationally, the TVPA set standards that governments of other countries must follow in order to receive aid from the U.
Bush took office in , restricting sex trafficking became one of his primary humanitarian efforts. The Act was subsequently renewed in , , and It established two stipulations an applicant has to meet in order to receive the benefits of a T-Visa.
In , Congress failed to re-authorize the Act. Retrieved 28 May The American Historical Review. Heathen Slaves and Christian Rulers. Retrieved 31 October Sketch of Life in the Golden State. Archived from the original on