Insulin sex hormone binding globulin. Sex hormone binding globulin and insulin resistance..



Insulin sex hormone binding globulin

Insulin sex hormone binding globulin

Published by BioScientifica Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. While the reason is not fully understood, we aimed to study the association between serum insulin and levels of SHBG in a random population.

Design and methods Between and , a random sample of participants aged 30—74 years were enrolled in a cross-sectional survey in the South-west of Sweden. Fasting blood samples were collected and an oral glucose tolerance test OGTT was conducted in all subjects without known diabetes. Diabetes mellitus was defined according to criteria from WHO, and clinical characteristics were used to discriminate between type 1 T1D and type 2 diabetes T2D.

Results We found significant inverse association between levels of SHBG and fasting serum insulin in both genders men: The associations remained when also differences in fasting plasma glucose were accounted for men: Moreover, early studies showed that low SHBG levels were associated with higher mortality in a cohort of postmenopausal women 4.

Whether SHBG is a biomarker for obesity and the metabolic syndrome or if it is more directly implicated in the physiopathology of the metabolic syndrome is less clear.

Interestingly, a specific membrane receptor for SHBG has been confirmed in different tissues 5. Thus, it seems that SHBG not only has a carrying function but also may exert direct cellular effects by modulating the target response of sex hormones. Better knowledge of factors controlling the production of SHBG is important not least because of strong evidence for the relationship between SHBG and cardiovascular disease.

Several factors have been suggested to influence the levels of SHBG 6, 7, 8. Obesity and hyperinsulinemia have for example been related to low levels of SHBG 9, Moreover, in vitro studies have shown that insulin might inhibit production of SHBG in human hepatoma cells 11 , and in accordance with these findings an inhibitory effect of insulin on SHBG secretion has been reported In contrast with these findings, animal studies have shown that monosaccharides inhibit the gene that controls the production of SHBG 13 independent of insulin concentrations.

However, it was unclear whether it is insulin or glucose, or both regulate the expression of the SHBG gene. Finally, a case—control study from Denmark has shown increased circulating concentrations of SHBG in men with type 1 diabetes T1D compared with healthy controls We aimed to study the association between endogenous insulin and SHBG-concentrations, and to estimate the differences in SHBG levels between subjects with T1D and T2D, and subjects without diabetes, respectively, in a population-based sample in South-western Sweden.

The characteristics of the study population are described in detail in a previous publication Medical history, socio-economic and lifestyle factors Standard questionnaires were used to obtain information on previous hospitalisations, current medication including contraceptives and hormonal replacement therapy , smoking and alcohol habits as well as leisure time physical activity.

Standard instruments were also used for the collection of data on demographic and socio-economic factors, and for symptoms of anxiety and depression In participants without known diabetes mellitus, an oral glucose tolerance test OGTT was performed to characterize the participants with impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetes mellitus according to WHO criteria Serum insulin was analysed using RIA.

We calculated the free testosterone FT according to previous works 20, Statistical analysis Standard methods were used for descriptive statistics. Results No gender differences were observed with regard to age and BMI, and the combined mean age was T1D was diagnosed in 6 women and 12 men.

Subjects with T2D had significantly lower levels of SHBG than subjects without diabetes when age adjusted analysis was computed separately for men and women. The differences remained after making further adjustments for BMI or triglycerides or both together. These differences were, however, no longer significant when fasting plasma glucose was included as a covariate.

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WHY 98% OF YOUR TESTOSTERONE IS USELESS !!! ● SHBG ●



Insulin sex hormone binding globulin

Published by BioScientifica Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. While the reason is not fully understood, we aimed to study the association between serum insulin and levels of SHBG in a random population. Design and methods Between and , a random sample of participants aged 30—74 years were enrolled in a cross-sectional survey in the South-west of Sweden.

Fasting blood samples were collected and an oral glucose tolerance test OGTT was conducted in all subjects without known diabetes. Diabetes mellitus was defined according to criteria from WHO, and clinical characteristics were used to discriminate between type 1 T1D and type 2 diabetes T2D. Results We found significant inverse association between levels of SHBG and fasting serum insulin in both genders men: The associations remained when also differences in fasting plasma glucose were accounted for men: Moreover, early studies showed that low SHBG levels were associated with higher mortality in a cohort of postmenopausal women 4.

Whether SHBG is a biomarker for obesity and the metabolic syndrome or if it is more directly implicated in the physiopathology of the metabolic syndrome is less clear. Interestingly, a specific membrane receptor for SHBG has been confirmed in different tissues 5. Thus, it seems that SHBG not only has a carrying function but also may exert direct cellular effects by modulating the target response of sex hormones. Better knowledge of factors controlling the production of SHBG is important not least because of strong evidence for the relationship between SHBG and cardiovascular disease.

Several factors have been suggested to influence the levels of SHBG 6, 7, 8. Obesity and hyperinsulinemia have for example been related to low levels of SHBG 9, Moreover, in vitro studies have shown that insulin might inhibit production of SHBG in human hepatoma cells 11 , and in accordance with these findings an inhibitory effect of insulin on SHBG secretion has been reported In contrast with these findings, animal studies have shown that monosaccharides inhibit the gene that controls the production of SHBG 13 independent of insulin concentrations.

However, it was unclear whether it is insulin or glucose, or both regulate the expression of the SHBG gene. Finally, a case—control study from Denmark has shown increased circulating concentrations of SHBG in men with type 1 diabetes T1D compared with healthy controls We aimed to study the association between endogenous insulin and SHBG-concentrations, and to estimate the differences in SHBG levels between subjects with T1D and T2D, and subjects without diabetes, respectively, in a population-based sample in South-western Sweden.

The characteristics of the study population are described in detail in a previous publication Medical history, socio-economic and lifestyle factors Standard questionnaires were used to obtain information on previous hospitalisations, current medication including contraceptives and hormonal replacement therapy , smoking and alcohol habits as well as leisure time physical activity. Standard instruments were also used for the collection of data on demographic and socio-economic factors, and for symptoms of anxiety and depression In participants without known diabetes mellitus, an oral glucose tolerance test OGTT was performed to characterize the participants with impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetes mellitus according to WHO criteria Serum insulin was analysed using RIA.

We calculated the free testosterone FT according to previous works 20, Statistical analysis Standard methods were used for descriptive statistics. Results No gender differences were observed with regard to age and BMI, and the combined mean age was T1D was diagnosed in 6 women and 12 men. Subjects with T2D had significantly lower levels of SHBG than subjects without diabetes when age adjusted analysis was computed separately for men and women.

The differences remained after making further adjustments for BMI or triglycerides or both together. These differences were, however, no longer significant when fasting plasma glucose was included as a covariate.

Insulin sex hormone binding globulin

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