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Male views towards coercion in sex

Male views towards coercion in sex

One contemporary analysis links the increase in gender equality in a society with increased sexual empowerment of women and less sexual coercion. But there's more to it than that. Such research cannot, of course, definitively explain the recent case in Cleveland involving Ariel Castro , who has been charged with abducting and raping three women over many years. But it does suggest avenues through which, on a societal level, sexual coercion — attempts to get sex by force — might be reduced in the United States and other countries.

Some biologists have argued that the proclivity for sexual coercion among men is merely a hand-me-down of human evolutionary history: They point to widespread sexual coercion among orangutans, a near cousin to humans on the tree of evolution.

Other biologists, however, point out that sexual coercion is by no means universal in the animal kingdom. Even among other primates, male and female bonobos have much more egalitarian sexual relationships than do orangutans. More to the point, as far as human societies are concerned, anthropologists have long documented differences in the extent of sexual coercion in different human societies.

More than three decades ago, Peggy Reeves Sanday at the University of Pennsylvania found wide variations in sexual coercion in an analysis of older societies.

In some of these societies, sexual coercion was widespread. In others, it was nearly absent. Sexual coercion, Sanday said — in a view backed by numerous feminist scholars — is shaped by cultural forces: It is significant that in societies where nature is held sacred, rape occurs only rarely. The study looked at those countries in part because they fall on different points along a gender-equality spectrum that is tabulated by the United Nations and known as the Gender Empowerment Measure.

The measure "examines the extent to which women and men are able to actively participate in economic and political life and take part in decision-making," according to the U. At the time the study was conducted, Norway ranked first in the world in terms of gender equality, the United States ranked 15 and Japan ranked 54, according to the measure. The researchers found that Norwegian pornography was more likely than Japanese pornography to show women in empowered roles, with U.

To some people, that might seem like clear-cut evidence that increased gender equality leads to increased sexual empowerment for women and less sexual coercion, but the study also found that depictions of coercive sex in pornography are about as common in Norway as in other countries. The links between pornography consumption and actual sexual practice, moreover, are murky.

Another study , for example, found that as pornography consumption has soared in Japan in recent decades, reported cases of sexual violence against women have fallen dramatically. The link between gender inequality and sexual coercion is supported by another study conducted in sub-Saharan Africa that found higher levels of inequality linked to higher levels of coercion.

But some scholars have noted that increased gender equality can also have different effects on sexual coercion over the short term than it has over the long term. In the short term, greater equality might trigger a "backlash" effect, leading to changes in the status of women while, over the longer term, equality might be linked with lower levels of coercion.

One analysis of U. Definitions of sexual coercion, moreover, have been the subject of debate — many scholars point out that most sexual coercion of women happens in the context of existing relationships, including marriage, even though cases such as the Cleveland abductions are far more likely to attract media attention.

Other scholars also point to the role of power as a factor: In one analysis of U. In some ways, this finding meshes with research that suggests disadvantaged women in many societies are the ones who are at greatest risk of experiencing sexual coercion.

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Male views towards coercion in sex

One contemporary analysis links the increase in gender equality in a society with increased sexual empowerment of women and less sexual coercion. But there's more to it than that. Such research cannot, of course, definitively explain the recent case in Cleveland involving Ariel Castro , who has been charged with abducting and raping three women over many years.

But it does suggest avenues through which, on a societal level, sexual coercion — attempts to get sex by force — might be reduced in the United States and other countries.

Some biologists have argued that the proclivity for sexual coercion among men is merely a hand-me-down of human evolutionary history: They point to widespread sexual coercion among orangutans, a near cousin to humans on the tree of evolution. Other biologists, however, point out that sexual coercion is by no means universal in the animal kingdom. Even among other primates, male and female bonobos have much more egalitarian sexual relationships than do orangutans.

More to the point, as far as human societies are concerned, anthropologists have long documented differences in the extent of sexual coercion in different human societies. More than three decades ago, Peggy Reeves Sanday at the University of Pennsylvania found wide variations in sexual coercion in an analysis of older societies.

In some of these societies, sexual coercion was widespread. In others, it was nearly absent. Sexual coercion, Sanday said — in a view backed by numerous feminist scholars — is shaped by cultural forces: It is significant that in societies where nature is held sacred, rape occurs only rarely.

The study looked at those countries in part because they fall on different points along a gender-equality spectrum that is tabulated by the United Nations and known as the Gender Empowerment Measure.

The measure "examines the extent to which women and men are able to actively participate in economic and political life and take part in decision-making," according to the U. At the time the study was conducted, Norway ranked first in the world in terms of gender equality, the United States ranked 15 and Japan ranked 54, according to the measure.

The researchers found that Norwegian pornography was more likely than Japanese pornography to show women in empowered roles, with U. To some people, that might seem like clear-cut evidence that increased gender equality leads to increased sexual empowerment for women and less sexual coercion, but the study also found that depictions of coercive sex in pornography are about as common in Norway as in other countries.

The links between pornography consumption and actual sexual practice, moreover, are murky. Another study , for example, found that as pornography consumption has soared in Japan in recent decades, reported cases of sexual violence against women have fallen dramatically.

The link between gender inequality and sexual coercion is supported by another study conducted in sub-Saharan Africa that found higher levels of inequality linked to higher levels of coercion.

But some scholars have noted that increased gender equality can also have different effects on sexual coercion over the short term than it has over the long term. In the short term, greater equality might trigger a "backlash" effect, leading to changes in the status of women while, over the longer term, equality might be linked with lower levels of coercion. One analysis of U.

Definitions of sexual coercion, moreover, have been the subject of debate — many scholars point out that most sexual coercion of women happens in the context of existing relationships, including marriage, even though cases such as the Cleveland abductions are far more likely to attract media attention.

Other scholars also point to the role of power as a factor: In one analysis of U. In some ways, this finding meshes with research that suggests disadvantaged women in many societies are the ones who are at greatest risk of experiencing sexual coercion.

Male views towards coercion in sex

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1 Comments

  1. Other researchers have reported similar findings. This inclusive framing need not and should not come at the expense of gender-sensitive approaches, which take into account the ways in which gender norms influence women and men in different or disproportionate ways.

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