Downloaded by [Noriko Hashimoto] at In addition, the number of people with HIV infections continues to rise. As of , among those infected with HIV, These data speak to the importance of sexuality education to protect the sexual health of youth. An intervention study on sexuality education for 14 —year-olds reports that multi-dimensional sexuality education showed positive results in terms of knowledge of sexual health, recognition of the importance of birth control, and attitude change favoring equality in gender roles Smylie et al.
However, since , the content of school-based sexuality education in Japan has been increasingly restricted by strong conservative opponents of sexuality education.
As a result, the practice of sexuality education in school has declined. Thus, adequate sexuality education is probably not being provided either at school or at home in Japan. Human sexuality education was advocated by M. S Calderone and L. In the s, human sexuality education was introduced to Japan and disseminated by persons associated with sexuality education. Human sexuality education provides not just education about the physiological and anatomical aspects of sex, it covers a broad conception that contains personal constructs such as psychological and social aspects of human relationships, and child-rearing environments Mamiya However, in terms of its content, a national curriculum for junior high schools has yet to cover issues about sexual intercourse and contraception, and has referred to condom use only as a preventive measure for STDs.
In a response to criticism from conservatives about excessive sexuality education, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology conducted a nationwide survey on sexuality education at elementary and junior high schools. The censoring of teaching materials and educational tools as favored by conservative opponents will be unlikely to lead to solving problems with sexual health among children or to the creation of a sexuality education adequate to maintain the sexual health and safety of children.
Methods Three questionnaire surveys were provided to participants to determine how sexuality education programs are conducted at junior high schools in Japan: The participants were thus junior high school teachers, students and their parents in Japan, and each was provided with a self-reporting questionnaire to complete.
For Study 1, of the 10, private and public junior high schools in Japan, schools with a student body of over were mailed questionnaires addressed to their respective principals. The survey was conducted between February and March Participants of Study 2 were students at schools that had agreed to the survey request that accompanied the questionnaire for Study 1.
In health and physical education classes, students in Grade One are commonly taught secondary sex characteristics, so the present study targeted those in Grades Two and Three age 13 —15 who often learn about STDs. These were returned by post in one package. The survey was conducted between February and July Participants in Study 3 were parents of students at schools that Sex Education 3 Downloaded by [Noriko Hashimoto] at The questionnaires were sent to the schools and distributed to the students by form teachers.
The students then gave them to their parents. The questionnaires were completed, inserted and sealed in envelopes at home and then returned to the form teachers. They were returned by post in one package. Ethical considerations The survey was conducted anonymously, with prior approval from the schools. The purpose of the research was explained in a written summary to the parents, and their returned questionnaire was considered as acceptance. For Study 1, questionnaires were returned, a response rate of All questionnaires yielded valid responses.
Analysis by school type revealed that national schools comprised 1. Responses were received from all 47 prefectures. For Study 2, approval was given by 55 schools, and 11, questionnaires were distributed, with questionnaires returned, a response rate of For Study 2, participants provided valid responses