History[ edit ] In , Anita Borg , then senior researcher at Digital Equipment Corporation , complained that women "run into subtle sexism every day". At the time, only 5. The report proposed solutions to a looming shortage in workers in the science, engineering, and technology field. The report suggested that rather than hiring immigrants, there are many women native to the United States to fill the positions. By , that number rose to In , however, only This spreadsheet reports that at Google, women receive lower salaries than their male counterparts for five out of six job titles that are listed on the spreadsheet.
It was even harder for female entrepreneurs. One of the most widely reported was Pao v. Three jurors cited Pao's "increasingly negative performance reviews" as the primary reason. Vandermayden brought about this lawsuit after learning her salary was lower than those of the eight other employees, all male, with whom she worked most closely, despite the fact that some of them had just finished college.
She was also subjected to a much harsher standard in order to receive a promotion and pay raise that many of her male colleagues had received simply for working at the company for a certain period of time. Investment of grants and conscious belief in intellectual sex differences[ edit ] Some scholars studying discrimination in the tech industry argue that since decision-makers in the tech industry often believe that men are inherently more technically competent than women, they think that it is economically a better investment to employ male tech personnel and to give higher budgets to the male staff than to the female staff.
According to this model, those investments lead to more opportunities for male staff to produce high quality results, which in turn reinforces the statistical bias and is used as an argument for male technical superiority, causing a self-fulfilling prophecy. These scholars argue that the main problem is not unconscious bias, but conscious belief in allegedly scientific notions of sex differences, citing that the percentage of women in the highest quality tech work have decreased despite a decline in traditional and unconscious gender bias and quotas of women at lower levels of tech though supposedly scientific claims of sex differences have increased and can account for the increased discrimination at top tech.
While this model states that there is systematic discrimination towards women in tech, it explains it as a result of specific economical investment issues and does not presume a society-wide patriarchal structure nor even that discrimination must necessarily favor men in all aspects of society.
In tasks that are perceived as masculine by society, women have less influence and are not considered experts. Only when a task is stereotyped as feminine will a women have more influence or authority than a man. Thus sex-based preferences for STEM subjects are innate and assuming third-party bias is wrong in itself.
One is citing that since infants interact with other humans from birth, if only their parents, and rapidly absorb accents , the concept of a pre-socialized stage is spurious. These critics argue that the monkeys that have been studied in primatology are ones that have lived close to human settlements and imitated human habits, and are therefore not non-socialized either. Therefore, these authors argue, distinctions between toys that predate socialization are unrelated to interests later in life.
Science, engineering and technology SET culture[ edit ] According to a project run and sponsored by private sector and thus not peer-reviewed by academia , the "Hidden Brain Drain", analyzed the careers of women in SET industries.
According to the authors of the post-project review, [note 1] the following characteristic of the SET culture, sometimes called the "Athena Effect" may exclude women workers: Masculine communication style and masculine group activities Unsustainable working hours Pressure to have or care for children Lack of organizational support when taking risks Despite the satisfaction that many women find in science, technology, engineering, and math STEM careers[ citation needed ], studies show that a main reason young women do not engage in STEM from an early age may be cultural messages inclining them to other subjects.
According to Brown and Leaper, "Many parents tend to have higher expectations of sons over daughters in math, science, computers, and sports". Male dominated environment[ edit ] According to an essay in The Atlantic , women leave the tech industry at twice the rate men do.
In addition to this, according to different studies, there is an imbalanced gender ratio in the technology industry to begin with. Google has released the gender breakdown for just their company: Since men are a majority in the industry, corporate events and industry conferences tend to cater to their taste, occasionally in ways which some women perceive as hostile, such as by hiring sexually provocative female performers and product promoters.
Instances of sexual harassment at such events are also widely reported. This along with more subtle hostility such as offensive male humor can turn women away from the industry, further exacerbating the demographic imbalance already present. The first reported case that led to the recognition of sexual harassment as a legal concept was in , in which a woman was fired from her job for refusing her boss' sexual advances.
Nine years later, in , the Supreme Court recognized cases like these as sexual harassment and as a violation of the Civil Rights Act. Still, the idea of sexual harassment was not truly recognized by the public until a case against a Supreme Court nominee was brought forward to Congress.
Overall, sexual harassment was not fully recognized by the United States until the late s, yielding a lack of reported incidents up until that point, as well as an increasing, but not yet fully developed, public awareness of the issue. In addition to unequal pay, one study suggests that women are often excluded from informal work networks and become targets of bullying such as sexual harassment.
He suggests classrooms have a welcoming feel that engages all students, validate their interests, and support positive inquiry.
Using the three key values of inclusion, comprehensiveness, and accountability, the organization works to find solution to diversity and inclusion issues that are present in the technology industry. He opined that the low numbers boiled down to "ultra-capable, math-savvy women" having "a different profile of interests, on average, than their male counterparts. He blamed disproportionate technology-industry sexism, and a low number of females in the field, on a large number of computing-related startup companies hiring primarily young workers, thereby creating "an environment in which many firms' technical teams consist largely of workers who are just out of college, sometimes giving the businesses fraternity-like cultures, leading to sexism that discourages female participation.
If people get angry, they should be angry. She photographed the men and Tweeted their photo to complain to the Pycon staff. This led to a controversy that came to be known as Donglegate , which included counterpoints that Richards herself had recently made jokes online about the penis size of a man. Its subject, men staring at women's breasts, proved too much for several commentators. After he defended the app against allegations of misogyny on Twitter, Business Insider Chief technology officer Pax Dickinson was forced to resign.
Dickinson later wrote an apology, which was published on VentureBeat. I had suggested on Twitter that Women 2. I take this back.
We shouldn't have to.