Introduction This bibliography, which comes to 4, records in 39 non English languages, derives from Worldcat and comes to 97, words. Worldcat, emanating from the United States, is the largest union catalog of libraries in the world and covers the world, with national libraries, university and research libraries increasingly joining. The bibliography was made 15—22 June when searches for the subject term "homosexuality" by individual languages were done using the Limit to: Language box eg "homosexuality" plus "Afrikaans", "homosexuality" plus "Arabic".
The bibliography supplements the annotated bibliographies of homosexuality of Wayne R. These two works together constitute coverage of the subject to and contain 4, and 6, items respectively. However, there has been an accelerated volume of published works on homosexuality since and probably half the works in A bibliography of homosexuality: Though the items are unannotated, records can be searched on Worldcat where the complete library record with subject terms and other details for example pagination and whether there are illustrations gives more information.
I also contributed many items to Gary Simes's bibliography. English language entries in Worldcat with subject "homosexuality" numbered 19, works in June , that is at present nearly five times those in non English languages. Overall Worldcat had 25, entries relating to subject "homosexuality" in June The work has been published to make the non English sources available, especially to English speakers, but also to readers of other languages who it was felt would benefit from them eg readers of Korean may want to know of developments in research into homosexuality in Chinese and Japanese while correspondingly readers of French may want to know of developments in Spanish, Italian and Greek or even Russian and say, Chinese.
Library catalogs increasingly have non roman scripts so records are usually both in these scripts as well as roman script. Works cataloged in Worldcat cover the following formats: The records are listed alphabetically by language. Within languages, periodicals appear first, then works without authors and then works with authors listed alphabetically by author. Some works have more than 2 records; these works have been left since frequently duplicates in the brief form given here give additional information on a work.
The following 39 languages were found to have records with the subject term "homosexuality" totals of records found are listed after each language: The 10 most frequent languages for works relating to homosexuality apart from English with, as already noted, 19, records in Worldcat in June were German , French , Spanish , Chinese , Dutch , Portuguese , Japanese , Italian , Swedish and Hebrew with 80 records.
As can be seen the records are not exhaustive for each language Ancient Greek has much more than 1 work on homosexuality and Latin many more than 2. Using "homosexuality" as a keyword will almost invariably bring up more records than using it as a subject term.
But works given the subject term "homosexuality" by library catalogers can be regarded as of scholarly importance and even the fact that they have entries in Worldcat shows importance. The number of records found may also relate to whether libraries have put records on Worldcat and the state of cataloging in libraries eg, as already noted, whether "homosexuality" is given as subject term when it should; however in my experience subject term cataloging for homosexuality is usually very reliable: General comments As already noted several formats are included in Worldcat records.
Gay periodicals are increasingly being cataloged though holdings may be few sometimes only1 library. Books on television are starting to appear though individual programs are still rare; radio, one of the most important means of communicating homosexuality ever, is barely present the great encyclopedia of Keith Howes, Broadcasting It on English television and radio in the UK, US and Australia is still a landmark work.
In languages with a few hundred works there will usually be coverage of gay history, literature, literary criticism, art and music, as well as types of homosexuality including increasingly books for young adults , social aspects, law and some coverage of science. Articles have been found to be especially helpful; they include book reviews and can be expected to grow considerably in numbers in coming years.
Generally the periodicals listed can be accepted as the more important ones in a language for a complete list of periodicals see the Canadian Lesbian and Gay Archives list, the largest in the world at over 7, titles and now available on the internet.
Overall trends include gay histories of particular nationalities which frequently, but not always equate to particular languages as well as an increasing number of histories of cities eg Hamburg, Basel and Stockholm. There is also increasing scientific discussion of homosexuality, including from the point of view of evolution and of the conceptualization of homosexuality.
Some languages, usually those spoken in countries in which male homosexuality was once illegal eg Spain and Germany have extensive works on law English also has many works eg the barrister Montgomery Hyde's The other love: Generally research on homosexuality has occurred in countries which are democracies; it is notable that, after the fall of Communism in eastern Europe, in , a flood of gay works has appeared in Russian and is beginning in other east European languages eg Czech.
It is also notable that in China where male homosexuality is not illegal some words are listed; this total can be expected to grow considerably in coming years since China is experiencing an increasingly open gay movement.
Readings from Literature and History It must be emphasized that only works in non English languages are included here, so, for instance, English language histories of a particular nationality do not appear eg Bret Hinsch's Passions of the Cut Sleeve , which is a history of homosexuality in China.
Many works cited are of course rare works in English speaking countries like the United States, Great Britain, and Canada and sometimes are not held at all in libraries in South Africa, Australia and New Zealand and many other countries.
Library resources all over the world need to be built up. A couple of what appear to be incorrect catalog records works appearing for instance in a language group which appear to be not from that language have been noticed; these have been left since removal of such a record could be based on a false assumption.
Some notes on the languages and works from perusal of the records Afrikanns, the language of people descended from the Dutch in South Africa is close to Dutch and Dutch should also be perused for works relating to South Africa. Arabic shows a growing corpus of works internet sites proliferate, usually created by the Arabic speaking diaspora and emanating from the United States, though none is archived here.
Catalan is spoken in the province of Catalunya in northeastern Spain, whose capital is Barcelona. Just as Catalan works may be relevant for Spain so Spanish works may also be relevant for Catalan. Chinese has a growing body of work with several gay histories, eg by Zhang Zhaizhou a librarian at the National Library in Beijing whose real name is Zhang Jie , and the noted sexologist and author of over 30 books, Liu Dalin. The earliest modern history dates from and was compiled in Hong Kong and published under the noses of the homophobic British by Weixingshiguanzhaizhu Committee of Scholars , the identity of whom is now known to be Liang Xiao Zhong information from Zhang Jie.
Homosexuality is not illegal in China. To date much material emanates from Hong Kong including, so far, the only generally circulating gay periodicals. The Library of Congress, Washington. In Danish the work of Wilhelm Rosen, 2 very large volumes of essays covering the period to deserves mention. Dutch has a very solid body of work dating from a gay library catalog see under Catalogus in the Dutch section.
There are several histories, much discussion of literary works and several biographical works. The work of Gert Hekma is outstanding.
No country has taken homosexuality more seriously than France, where male homosexual sex has been legal since There have been many recent historical works, dictionaries of famous gays as in German , works on film also prominent in Italian and discussion of the conceptualization of homosexuality.
In fact no philosopher since Plato has been more influential in gay affairs than Foucault. A recent history of gay France from by Scott Gunther does not appear as it is in English. Claude Courouve has compiled a notable dictionary of French gay words as well as important basic bibliographies.
In Finnish, where there is a very open gay movement as is the case in Iceland, which has the world's first openly gay prime minister, a lesbian ; H Kalha's book on the major gay artist Magnus Enckell is notable. German has the largest number of works. There are fine bibliographies by Manfred Herzer of non literary works and a less professional one by E G Welter on homosexuality overall Magnus Hirschfeld, a gay doctor and activist who wrote what is still a landmark work, the page volume translated into English only in as The Homosexuality of Men and Women, is one of the foremost scholars; this work has the first extensive list of male homosexuals, mainly Europeans, though a work by Albert Moll whose German title means famous homosexuals had a prior shorter list.
There have recently been a spate of works on the Nazi period and one biography by Luther Mochtar plausibly alleging the Nazi leader and German dictator, Adolf Hitler, was homosexual; this work does not appear in the works cited. The Symposium, a discussion of love, is a foundation work in homosexuality. Modern Greek has an increasing volume of works, including several gay poetry anthologies, a much reprinted gay dictionary compiled by Elias Petropoulos and two works on the Byzantine period.
The two works in Hindi are sure to be a precursor of many more now male homosexuality has been legalized. Indonesian has a growing list of works, especially with the recent flowering of democracy following the downfall of the dictator Suharto; the academic Dede Oetomo from Surabaya in east Java has written much and appears on television. Italian shows the strong influence of gay liberation especially in works inspired by the left. Pier Paolo Pasolinin was a major gay cultural figure making many fine gay films before being tragically murdered by a male prostitute.
Recent trends, as elsewhere, show a widening of discussion into all areas of gay life history, literature, film, politics, religion. Giovanni dall'Orto's web site not listed gives one of the best coverages; he also compiled the only Italian gay bibliography Leggere omosessuale which is listed as well as being a founder of Babilonia, long Italy's premier gay magazine but now defunct the monthly Pride not listsed continues in the Babilonia line.
Japanese has a long gay scholarly tradition from the early years of the twentieth century when J Iwata was active he died in the Second World War ; in H Shibayama published a major study of Edo homosexuality while M Hayakawa's book Ukiyoe shunga to nanshoku reproduces all homosexual shunga erotic color woodblock prints ; this latter work is available free on the internet through the Nichibunken, Japan's premier research institute, situated in the hills outside Kyoto.
Latin's two entries do not do justice to over 2, years of works see the overview for Latin in my Encyclopedia of Male Homosexual Poetry for works; Latin homosexual poems were still being written in the early twentieth century eg by Aleister Crowley.
Commentaries in Latin on ancient Greek and Latin gay writers, which appreared from the Renaissance and continued to the nineteenth century, await detailed exploration from a gay point of view. Norwegian has a very respectable body of gay writing with several historical works as does Swedish. A major Swedish history of a city is the history of gay Stockholm from to compiled by the late Frederik Silverstolpe and others.
The fine periodical Lambda Nordica covers the Scandinavian countries. Despite its huge gay poetry heritage Persian has only two entries, undoubtedly because of the repressive situation in Iran at present the present president denied that there were any homosexuals in the country in New York when he spoke at Columbia University in New York in ; however the internet as elsewhere is changing perceptions.
Polish has seen an increasing number of works since the downfall of Communism though a fierce battle continues in Poland as elsewhere against homophobia. Nowdays most gay works come from Brazil, the world's fourth largest country by population. Russian with 50 works has a much discussed gay history especially from and the fall of communism.
Historical works by L S Klein, an anthropologist who was imprisoned for homosexuality stand out. V Kozlovskii published a gay language dictionary in With the downfall of the dictator General Franco in , Spanish has had an increasing volume of works emanating from Spain: An earlier survey of gay history was the work Homosexualismo creador by A Nin Frias. In Argentina, again, democracy brought gay culture into print.
Mexico, which has long prided itself on its democratic ways, has a very active cultural group in the the Circulo Cultural Gay who have published several anthologies of gay art.
Thai with 11 gay works has a major gay scene with gay pride parades now held in Bangkok and the beach resort of Pattaya. In Turkish, which has a remarkable gay history in poetry alone, a body of gay historical works is coming into being. I Z Eyuboglu published in a major survey of gay divan poetry. There are 3 Urdu works. Urdu poetry is rich in homosexuality but in English this is discussed in. Other ways of searching The internet should always be searched in this day and age for imformation on any topic.
In particular, the internet encyclopedia Wikipedia has millions of scholarly entries in over 40 languages and has been found to be overall extremely accurate. For any particular language be sure to consult Wikipedia in that language; see also the specifically gay encyclopedia titled glbtq. The huge database LGBT life with full text held by many libraries is a major resource with the full text of many periodicals eg The Advocate ; it is however at present mainly orientated to English language works but material in other languages is held.
For a particular language, the national library catalogs and those of major universities of any particular country should be checked in addition to Worldcat, since some countries are not yet on Worldcat and in some countries major scholarly libraries are not yet participants.
Detailed bibliographies are starting to appear on the internet for various subjects: These databases are given as examples; for other topics check databases in that topic.
Many databases at this time may only go back 30 but digitalization is taking them back further; however for older material printed volumes will need to be consulted.