Are dogs divided into hes and shes, or do they both share equally in hunting and in keeping watch and in the other duties of dogs? Or do we entrust to the males the entire and exclusive care of the flocks, while we leave the females at home, under the idea that the bearing and suckling their puppies is labour enough for them?
The Republic states that women in Plato's ideal state should work alongside men, receive equal education, and share equally in all aspects of the state.
The sole exception involved women working in capacities which required less physical strength. Women in the Bible , Women in Judaism , Islamic feminism , and Women in Islam In the Middle East during the Middle Ages, an early effort to improve the status of women occurred during the early reforms under Islam , which granted women greater rights in marriage, divorce and inheritance.
When the British applied their law to Muslims in place of Shariah , as they did in some colonies, the result was to strip married women of the property that Islamic law had always granted them — hardly progress toward equality of the sexes.
These range from the medieval mystic and philosopher Ibn Arabi , who argued that women could achieve spiritual stations as equally high as men  to Nana Asma'u , daughter of eighteenth-century reformer Usman Dan Fodio , who pushed for the literacy and education of Muslim women.
This continued through to the Ayyubid dynasty in the 12th and 13th centuries, when mosques and madrasahs were established in Damascus , 26 of which were funded by women through the Waqf charitable trust or trust law system. Half of all the royal patrons for these institutions were also women.
In the 12th century, the Sunni scholar Ibn Asakir wrote that women could study, earn ijazahs academic degrees , and qualify as scholars and teachers. This was especially the case for learned and scholarly families, who wanted to ensure the highest possible education for both their sons and daughters.
Female education in the Islamic world was said to be inspired by Muhammad's wives: Khadijah , a successful businesswoman, and Aisha , a renowned hadith scholar and military leader. According to a hadith attributed to Muhammad , he praised the women of Medina because of their desire for religious knowledge. At that point women come, too, to hear the readings; the men sit in one place, the women facing them. It even happens at such times that some of the women are carried away by the situation; one will stand up, and sit down, and shout in a loud voice.
The labor force in the Caliphate were employed from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds, while both men and women were involved in diverse occupations and economic activities. In comparison, female property rights and wage labour were relatively uncommon in Europe until the Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Criticism[ edit ] There have been some who have claimed that is evidence of matrilineality in pre-Islamic Arabia , from the Amirites of Yemen to the Nabateans in Northern Arabia. Shulamith Shahar believed that his wife Khadijah was the last successful businesswoman one could find in Arabia. And there was evidence that Khadijah was the norm, not the exception, before Mohammed's rule over Arabia. After Muhammed 's revolution, the Arabian businesswoman disappears.
She believes that it is likely that Muhammed specifically targeted the matrilineal system and replaced it with what she believes as the most a strictest patrilineal system ever witnessed. Far from being a "proto-feminist," Muhammed would therefore instead be the one who removed rights, at a time where rights were widely available to women in both Europe and Asia.
The leader of the group was Johanna Ferrour, who ordered this violent action due to Sudbury's harsh poll taxes. These women did everything that the men did; they were just as violent, if not more, in their actions in order to rebel against the government. Johanna Ferrour was not the only female who was a leader within this revolt; there were quite a few more involved—one woman was indicted for encouraging an attack against a prison at Maidstone in Kent, while another female leader was responsible for the robbing of a multitude of mansions, which frightened servants so much that they did not feel safe enough to return afterwards.
Although there were not many female leaders within this rebellion, there was a surprisingly large number of women who were a part of the crowd.
For instance, there were seventy female rebels in Suffolk. The various extreme acts of violence displayed by these women exhibited their mounting hatred towards the government.
Renaissance humanists such as Vives and Agricola argued that aristocratic women at least required education. Elizabeth I was described as having talent without a woman's weakness, industry with a man's perseverance, and the body of a weak and feeble woman, but with the heart and stomach of a king. Being a powerful and successful woman during the Renaissance , like Queen Elizabeth I meant in some ways being male, a perception that gravely limited women's potential as women.
Socrates , a well-known exemplar of the love of wisdom to the Renaissance humanists, said that he tolerated his first wife Xanthippe , because she bore him sons, in the same way one tolerated the noise of geese because they produce eggs and chicks.
Marriage during the Renaissance defined a woman: An unmarried woman was the property of her father, and once married, she became the property of her husband. She had few rights, except for privileges granted by her husband or father. Married women were required to obey their husbands and were expected to be chaste, obedient, pleasant, gentle, submissive, and, unless sweet-spoken, silent. When Petruchio tames her, she readily goes to him when he summons her, almost like a dog.
Her submissiveness is applauded, and the crowds at the party accept her as a proper woman since she is now "conformable to other household Kates. Men were encouraged to attend college to acquire knowledge in many subjects, but the education of women—who were expected to become obedient wives — was almost unheard of.
A woman named Margherita, living during the Renaissance , learned to read and write at the age of about 30, so there would be no mediator for the letters exchanged between her and her husband.
When a woman did involve herself in learning, it was certainly not the norm. In the same letter he wrote, For why should the subtleties of The contests of the forum, like those of warfare and battle, are the sphere of men. Hers is not the task of learning to speak for and against witnesses, for and against torture, for and against reputation She will, in a word, leave the rough-and-tumble of the forum entirely to men.
This denial of access to public forums led to problems for educated women, and contributed to the unlikelihood that a woman would obtain an education in the first place. Noted feminist writers on religion and spirituality included Rachel Speght , Katherine Evans, Sarah Chevers, Margaret Fell a founding member of the Quakers , and Sarah Blackborow    This tendency continued in the prominence of some female ministers and writers such as Mary Mollineux and Barbara Blaugdone in the early decades of Quakerism.
Religious egalitarianism, such as that embraced by the Levellers , carried over into gender equality, and therefore had political implications. Leveller women mounted large-scale public demonstrations and petitions for equal rights, although dismissed by the authorities of the day. However, they encountered considerable hostility, as exemplified by the experiences of Cavendish, and Wroth whose work was not published till the 20th century. Seventeenth-century France also saw the rise of salons , cultural gathering places of the upper-class intelligentsia, which were run by women and in which they participated as artists.
However, this depiction fails to recognise the intellectual debt she owed to Anna Maria van Schurman , Bathsua Makin and other women who preceded her. She was certainly one of the earliest feminist writers in English, whose analyses are as relevant today as in her own time, and moved beyond earlier writers by instituting educational institutions for women. No woman would speak out as strongly again for another century.
In historical accounts, Astell is often overshadowed by her younger and more colourful friend and correspondent Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. The liberalisation of social values and secularisation of the English Restoration provided new opportunities for women in the arts, an opportunity that women used to advance their cause. However, female playwrights encountered similar hostility. The most influential of all    was Aphra Behn , the first Englishwoman to achieve the status of a professional writer.
Virginia Woolf praised her career and wrote, "All women together ought to let flowers fall upon the grave of Aphra Behn The literature of the last decades of the century was sometimes referred to as the "Battle of the Sexes",  and was often surprisingly polemic, such as Hannah Woolley 's "The Gentlewoman's Companion.