Gender dysphoria[ edit ] Gender dysphoria is a strong, persistent discomfort and distress with one's gender, anatomy, birth sex, and even societal attitudes toward their gender variance. Body esteem of several transgender youth was measured in an interview in three categories personal satisfaction of appearance, personal satisfaction of weight, and perceived satisfaction of others of one's body appearance. Children who experience physical abuse, verbal abuse, and sexual abuse are also more likely to identify as being gender dysphoric.
This evidence is not clear as to the relationship between abuse and sexual identity in regards to which is the cause and which is the effect. Regardless, it does show a relationship between childhood abuse and gender identity.
Have marks on my body. I have things that I remember happened to me. Transgender youth who face physical abuse may be forced to leave their homes, or choose to leave, which can be a particularly traumatic experience. The lack of housing was found to often lead to financial difficulties for such youth. Lack of support at home and constant harassment at school may lead to academic difficulties for the youth as well, who face a much higher drop out level compared to their cisgender counterparts.
Survival sex is the act of engaging in sexual activity with another individual or the act of selling sex in order to meet one's basic survival needs. While there is an awareness of the possible dangers associated with survival sex, it is often reported that a sense of pride in being able to support oneself accompanies the activity or the positivity of being able to eat and have somewhere to rest that night.
This lack of access may be due to doctors refusing to treat youth or youth fearing negative reactions from health care providers. Psychiatrists and endocrinologists are generally reluctant to provide hormone therapy to youths under 16, and obtaining sex reassignment surgery prior to the age of 18 is almost impossible in most countries. Some of the medical professionals who are permitted to prescribe hormones include medical providers, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants. This can be potentially dangerous, and can result in a multitude of health problems for the youth, including improper pubertal growth and HIV due to contaminated needles.
Sexually transmitted infections are a large health problem for transgender teens as well, as sexual partners often do not perceive these youth as health risks, especially since male-to-female youth cannot become pregnant.
This trend of unprotected sex among the transgender population puts them at increased risk and has led to higher numbers of STIs among the group  However, the latest revision of the Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender Nonconforming People has addressed the needs of transgender children.
Existing healthcare options[ edit ] When an individual is transitioning from female to male FTM or male to female MTF , there are several avenues  that are available to them pendant upon their financial capabilities, insurance's agreement to cover costs, and personal desire to utilize these options. While these options do exist, many of them are labeled off limits to minors individuals under the age of One of the options that does exist for minors is the use of puberty blockers, which in were officially stated as not damaging to bone health at the Endocrine Society's 95 Annual Meeting in San Francisco.
Puberty blockers are believed to put the succession of puberty on pause and can reverse any changes that had been made. Typically puberty blockers, which are reversible are first administered between the ages of 12—14 years of age, this is the age block because 16 years of age is believed to be too late.
His work is guided by his desire to see the suicide rates amongst untreated transgender individuals go down and to keep youth from undergoing psychological trauma that can accompany puberty when they do not identify. Spack is inspired by the research done in Dutch nations in their use of puberty blockers and affirms this choice, this affirmation stems from the fact that early administration of cross sex hormones causes stunts in growth, issues of infertility, and other health issues.
When this procedure of puberty blockers and cross sex hormones are followed, transitional surgery is then granted upon turning 18 years old. For those wishing to transition from male to female, options consist of facial feminisation surgery, vaginoplasty, breast augmentation surgery, and cross-sex hormones. For those wishing to transition from female to male, options consist of penile construction surgery, breast reduction surgery, and cross- sex hormones.
In the United States to change an individual's existing gender marker and name, visits must be made to change the driver's license , social security card , banking documents, passport , the list trails on and extensive documentation must be presented in order to change each individual item. Several problems may be faced at schools, including verbal and physical harassment and assault, sexual harassment , social exclusion and isolation, and other interpersonal problems with peers.
Transgender students were much more likely than their peers to report harassment, assault, and feeling unsafe in school settings. Larger schools tend to have safer climates for transgender students, as do schools with more low income and religious and ethnic minorities.
A majority of these students also reported physical harassment at school, with nearly half reporting that they had been punched, kicked, or injured with a weapon.
They frequently reported fear an anxiety about using these facilities at school because of experiences of harassment by both peers and adults when using them.
Negative comments about gender presentation may be frequently overheard in these places, and surveyed students have reported being "pushed around," "getting the crap beat out of them," and "getting their asses kicked" by peers. Only a third of transgender students who reported victimization to school staff members feel that their situation was taken care of adequately and effectively. The other two thirds often run into situations where the school staff members blame the victimized students.
One student, when reporting bullying, said that they were told "that I need to stop flaunting my sexuality". These things serve no educational purpose and only isolate transgender students further. The severity and frequency of bullying and harassment are directly correlated to these things. In one study of transgender youth, three quarters of the participants dropped out of school, almost all citing the main reason the constant acts of violence against them due to their gender identity.
Anti-transgender bullying in schools has also been found to directly correlate with other negative outcomes, such as homelessness, unemployment, incarceration, and drug use. The few studies that have been done, however, have all concluded that transgender youth are at increased risk even over their gay, lesbian, and bisexual counterparts. A study of transgender youth found that, of the youth interviewed, about half had seriously contemplated ending their own lives.
Of those who had thought about suicide , about half had actually made an attempt. Suicide rates were reported even higher for those who were unemployed, experienced harassment and physical or sexual abuse, or low household income. Of the transgender youth who were interviewed and reported an attempt at taking their own life in the aforementioned study, almost all had been verbally abused by their parents, and a significant number had been physically abused as well.
In comparing those transgender youth who had and had not attempted suicide, there were significant differences in family relations, peer relations, and school performance  Awareness of the suicide rates of LGBT youth spiked post, as a result of significant publicity being given to the recent suicides of Leelah Alcorn , Skylar Lee, and Ash Haffner only being a few.
This is because transgender youth are in a vulnerable stage and unlike cisgender or LGB youth, a sentence to a juvenile detention facility could mean that their transition is stopped while they are detained.
That is damaging to their mental health, and an experience that other youth are not subjected to. Juvenile justice professionals are bound to the rules of ethics to ensure all youth are treated fairly.
However, many transgender youth felt as if they were not adequately represented or respected in court. The judge agreed to the sentence, even though they did not seem suicidal, dangerous, or appear to be a flight risk. During intake, the goal is to address safety concerns of the youth, identify those who are vulnerable, and then house juveniles based upon their birth gender.
Furthermore, the placement of LGBTQ youth is a complicated issue because their wants and needs have to be balanced with what is best for their safety. In most facilities, youth are forced to return to their birth gender. Medical experts state that this process puts the transgender youth in distress and undermines their emotional stability. One pediatrician believes that male-to-female girls should be housed in female units because they are safer there.
Jamal, a female-to-male boy, stated that he knew that he would not be safe with the other boys because he knows how violent males are despite how he may appear on the outside he not genetically male. One transgender youth in New York was placed in isolation for three weeks, despite her request to be placed in general population. Ultimately, there needs to be a better understanding of transgender youth, realizing that they are not predatory, and increasing protections for their safety.
These students also reported to be less likely to plan on continuing their education as a result to their unsafe environment. In some countries, schools are working to accommodate gender identity and expression by eliminating traditional gendered activities. While many schools have become more accepting and allow children to express their desired gender identity, current research shows that there is an increased amount of harassment, bullying, indifference by school staff, and antigay victimization towards transgender and gender non-conforming youth.
Schools must enforce LGBTQ-related policies and implement necessary staff trainings to minimize these social hazards for transgender and gender non-conforming children. Families with a young child that identifies as a different gender and chooses to alter their gender role through dress or behaviors may respect their child's decision, and sometimes, may decide to relocate the child to another area in order to afford the young person the best opportunity to live in their desired gender role among a novel set of peers and community.
This helps protect transgender children from peer rejection , bullying , and harassment. Families with a transgender child living within an intolerant community may face challenging issues. Gwen Araujo of Newark, California was a young person who was living as female, when she had been assigned to the male gender at birth.
When her trans status was revealed at a party she attended, she became the victim of violent crimes that resulted in her death. Thankfully the Araujo case is an extreme one, however parents should be aware of the social implications of their transgender child living in an unsafe environment. Factors that influence acceptance or denial of their identity tend to surround political interests, religious affiliations, and whether their identity is still labeled as a mental health disorder.
The bill allows minors to have their parents apply to have their legal gender marker changed for them or to have a gender marker held from their birth certificate until their gender identity has been self-determined.
The bill also prevents surgeries from being performed on intersex infants until their gender identity has been discovered; the parents are no longer required to make an immediate decision and medical personnel cannot override this decision because the bill also outlaws the request to view medical records.
Also, the entire process can be completed in less than thirty days. While there are other European countries who have created allowances and encouraged acceptance of transgender individuals, most require compulsory sterilization and have lengthy legal proceedings. Many transgender youth constantly face struggles in attempting to transition and to be accepted in the U.
According to the Human Rights Campaign , in 32 states an individual can be fired for being transgender and in 33 states an individual can be refused housing. The west and north-eastern states are currently the most tolerant of the transgender population and have the most laws to protect those individuals. Trantham[ edit ] At 13 years old, D. While the Add the Words bill did not end up passing, the testimonies of D. Since then she has spoken on a national level for transgender youth.